Milk Chocolate is more effective than energy drink

Ads energy drink may have been familiar to most people. Starting from the form of sachets, cans or bottles. But fat-free chocolate milk proved to be more efficacious than the restoring force athletes variety of energy drinks.

Experts agree that the recovery of energy for athletes two hours after exercise or other heavy activity is important. But this is often ignored.

Yet after heavy activity, the recovery period is important for active people. This is to help maximize your stamina and maintain equipment performance excellence in the next activity.

Researchers found that fat-free chocolate milk can keep the body, fill and rebuild the muscles to help the body recover.

Fat-free chocolate milk is more effective than the liquid carbohydrate specifically designed to add energy.

As quoted from the Telegraph, Friday (06/04/2010), these findings have been published by James Madison University at the conference of the American College of Sports Medicine, in Seattle.

Drinking fat-free chocolate milk after exercise or activity that emits a lot of energy, can help prepare your muscles for the game or the next activity.

The combination of carbohydrates and proteins contained in milk chocolate found in the ratio of the most profitable and best suited to restore power.

As quoted from SawfNews, specifically researchers discovered the benefits of milk chocolate, which is to:

1. Build back muscle

Fat-free chocolate milk better able to increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis, which means that is a sign that muscles are better able to repair and rebuild, rather than an addition to carbohydrate energy drinks with the same number of calories.

2. Filling the 'fuel' muscles are depleted

Studies show that chocolate milk has a mix of carbohydrates and protein to help fill the muscles 'fuel' is low, namely glycogen. It is important to restore stamina and muscle. Protein in fat-free chocolate milk also helps build lean muscle.

3. Reduce muscle damage

Athletes at risk of muscle damage after strenuous exercise and perform. Researchers found that fat-free chocolate milk after exercise can help reduce the muscle damage.

4. Replace lost body fluids

Milk chocolate also provide rehydration fluids and electrolytes in the body, such as potassium, calcium and magnesium is lost in sweat. Both fluids are required in order to maintain the condition of the body remains healthy and can replace lost energy after heavy activity.
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Learning Disabilities

"Learning disability" is a general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. A learning disability can cause a person to have trouble learning and using certain skills.. The skills most often affected are the following: There reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and doing math.
Learning disabilities or LD vary from person to person. One person with learning disabilities may not have the same kind of learning problems as another person with learning disabilities.
One person may have trouble with reading and writing. Another person with learning disabilities may have problems with understanding math. Still another person may have trouble in each of these areas, as well as with understanding what people are saying.
Researchers think that learning disabilities are caused by differences in how a person's brain works and how it processes information. Children with learning disabilities are not "dumb" or "lazy." In fact, they usually have average or above average intelligence. Their brains just process information differently.
The definition of "learning disability" just below comes from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The IDEA is the federal law that guides how schools provide special education and related services to children with disabilities.
There is no "cure" for learning disabilities. They are life-long. However, children with learning disabilities can be high achievers and can be taught ways to get around the learning disability. With the right help, children with learning disabilities can and do learn successfully.

How common are learning disabilities?

Very common! As many as 1 out of every 5 people in the United States has a learning disability. Almost 3 million children (ages 6 through 21) have some form of a learning disability and receive special education in school. In fact, over half of all children who receive special education have a learning disability (Twenty-fourth Annual Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Education, 2002).

What are the signs of a learning disability?

There is no one sign that shows a person has a learning disability. Experts look for a noticeable difference between how well a child does in school and how well he or she could do, given his or her intelligence or ability. There are also certain clues that may mean a child has a learning disability. We've listed a few below. Most relate to elementary school tasks, because learning disabilities tend to be identified in elementary school. A child probably won't show all of these signs, or even most of them. However, if a child shows a number of these problems, then parents and the teacher should consider the possibility that the child has a learning disability.
When a child has a learning disability, he/she:
  • may have trouble learning the alphabet, rhyming words, or connecting letters to their sounds;
  • may make many mistakes when reading aloud, and repeat and pause often;
  • may not understand what he or she reads;
  • may have real trouble with spelling;
  • may have very messy handwriting or hold a pencil awkwardly;
  • may struggle to express ideas in writing;
  • may learn language late and have a limited vocabulary;
  • may have trouble remembering the sounds that letters make or hearing slight differences between words;
  • may have trouble understanding jokes, comic strips, and sarcasm;
  • may have trouble following directions;
  • may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that sounds similar;
  • may have trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or not be able to think of the word he or she needs for writing or conversation;
  • may not follow the social rules of conversation, such as taking turns, and may stand too close to the listener;
  • may confuse math symbols and misread numbers;
  • may not be able to retell a story in order (what happened first, second, third); or
  • may not know where to begin a task or how to go on from there.
If a child has unexpected problems learning to read, write, listen, speak, or do math, then teachers and parents may want to investigate more. The same is true if the child is struggling to do any one of these skills. The child may need to be evaluated to see if he or she has a learning disability.

Tips for parents of children with learning disabilities

Learn about learning disabilities. The more you know, the more you can help yourself and your child. See the list of resources and organizations at the end of this article.
  • Praise your child when he or she does well. Children with learning disabilities are often very good at a variety of things. Find out what your child really enjoys doing, such as dancing, playing soccer, or working with computers. Give your child plenty of opportunities to pursue his or her strengths and talents.

  • Find out the ways your child learns best. Does he or she learn by hands-on practice, looking, or listening? Help your child learn through his or her areas of strength.

  • Let your child help with household chores. These can build self-confidence and concrete skills. Keep instructions simple, break down tasks into smaller steps, and reward your child's efforts with praise.

  • Make homework a priority. Read more about how to help your child be a success at homework. (See resource list at the end.)

  • Pay attention to your child's mental health (and your own!). Be open to counseling, which can help your child deal with frustration, feel better about himself or herself, and learn more about social skills.

  • Talk to other parents whose children have learning disabilities. Parents can share practical advice and emotional support. Call NICHCY (1.800.695.0285) and ask how to find parent groups near you. Also let us put you in touch with the parent training and information (PTI) center in your state.

  • Meet with school personnel and help develop an educational plan to address your child's needs. Plan what accommodations your child needs, and don't forget to talk about assistive technology!

  • Establish a positive working relationship with your child's teacher. Through regular communication, exchange information about your child's progress at home and at school.

Tips for teachers of children with learning disabilities

Learn as much as you can about the different types of learning disabilities. The resources and organizations at the end of this document can help you identify specific techniques and strategies to support the student educationally.
Seize the opportunity to make an enormous difference in this student's life! Find out and emphasize what the student's strengths and interests are. Give the student positive feedback and lots of opportunities for practice.
Review the student's evaluation records to identify where specifically the student has trouble. Talk to specialists in your school (e.g., special education teacher) about methods for teaching this student. Provide instruction and accommodations to address the student's special needs. Examples include:
  • breaking tasks into smaller steps, and giving directions verbally and in writing;

  • giving the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests;

  • letting the student with reading problems use textbooks-on-tape (available through Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic, listed under "For more information");

  • letting the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder; and

  • letting the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech.
Learn about the different testing modifications that can really help a student with learning disabilities show what he or she has learned.
Teach organizational skills, study skills, and learning strategies. These help all students but are particularly helpful to those with learning disabilities.
Work with the student's parents to create an educational plan tailored to meet the student's needs.
Establish a positive working relationship with the student's parents. Through regular communication, exchange information about the student's progress at school.

Is there any treatment for learning disabilities?

The most common treatment for learning disabilities is special education. Specially trained educators may perform a diagnostic educational evaluation assessing the child's academic and intellectual potential and level of academic performance. Once the evaluation is complete, the basic approach is to teach learning skills by building on the child's abilities and strengths while correcting and compensating for disabilities and weaknesses. Other professionals such as speech and language therapists also may be involved. Some medications may be effective in helping the child learn by enhancing attention and concentration. Psychological therapies may also be used.

What is the prognosis for learning disabilities?

Learning disabilities can be lifelong conditions. In some people, several overlapping learning disabilities may be apparent. Other people may have a single, isolated learning problem that has little impact on their lives.

What research is being done for learning disabilities?

The NINDS and other institutes of the National Institutes of Health including the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, and the National Institute of Mental Health support research on learning disabilities. Current research avenues focus on developing techniques to diagnose and treat learning disabilities and increase understanding of the biological basis of learning disabilities.

by Michelle Taño

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Language Learning Principle: The Native Language Effect

It almost goes without saying that the native language of every learner is an extremely significant factor in the acquisition of a new language. Most of the time, we think of the native language as excercising an interfering effect on the target language, and indeed the most salient, observable effect does appear-to be one of interference (see PLLT, Chapter 8). The majority of a learner’s errors in producing the second language, especially in the beginning levels, stem from the learner’s assumption that the target language operates like the native language.
But what we observe may, like an iceberg, be only part of the reality. The facilitating effects of the native language are surely as powerful in the process, or more so, even though they are less observable. When the native French speaker who is learning English says “I am here since january”, there is one salient native language effect, averb tense error stemming from French. But the learner’s native French may also have facilitated the production of that sentence’s subject-verb-complement word order, the placement of the locative (here), the one-to-one grammatical correspondence of the other words in the sentence, rules governing preposotional pharese, and the cognate word (January).
The principle of the Native Language Effect stresses the importance of that native system in hte linguistic attempts of the second language learner.
The native language of learners exerts a strong influence on the acquisition of hte target languge system. While that native system will exxercise both facilitating and interfering effects on hte production and comprehension of hte new language, hte interfering effects are likely to be the most salient.
In your dealing with the Native Language Effect in the classroom, your feedback will most often focus on interference. That’s perfectly sound pedagogy. Learners’ errors stand out like the tips of icebergs, giving us salient signals of an underlying system at work. Wrrors are, in fact, windows to a learner’s internalized understanding of the second language, and therefore they give teachers something observable to react to. Student non-errors-the facilitating effects-certainly do not need to be treated. Don’t try to fix something that isn’t broken.
Some classroom sugestions stemming from the Native Language Effect:
1.    Regard learners’ errors as important windows to their underlying systerm and provide appropriate feedback on them (see Principle 11 and Chapter 17 for more information on feedback). Errors of native language interference may be repaired by acquainting the learner with the native language cause of the error.
2.    Ideally, every successful learner will hold on to the facilitafing effects of the native language and discard the interference. Help your students to under stand that not everything about their native language system will cause error.
3.    Thinking directly in the target language usually helps to minimize interference errors. Try to coax students into thinking in the second language instead of resorting to translation as they comprehend and produce language. An occasional translation of  a word or phrase can actually be helpful, especially for adults, but direct use of the second language will help to avoid the first language “crutch”syndrome.
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When Creativity Rules Your Mind

Mario theme with a remote control car

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Potential Applications of Fungi; a Biotechnological Aproach

Fungi are prominent sources of pharmaceuticals and are used in many industrial fermentative processes, such as the production of enzymes, vitamins, pigments, lipids, glycolipids, polysaccharides and polyhydric alcohols.

During the past 50 years, several major advancements in medicine came from lower organisms such as molds, yeasts and the other diver’s fungi. Fungi are extremely useful in making high value products like mycoproteins and acts as plant growth promoters and disease suppressor. Fungal secondary metabolites are important to our health and nutrition and have tremendous economic impact. In addition to this, fungi are extremely useful in carrying out biotransformation processes. Recombinant DNA technology, which includes yeasts and other fungi as hosts, has markedly increased market for microbial enzymes.

Today, fungal biotechnology is a major participant in the global industry due to its mind blowing potential.

A) Designing of vectors

Yeast vectors are used in genetic engineering. E.g., shuttle vectors are used for expression
of desirable gene in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.
YAC, YRP, YIP, YEP are some other yeast vectors.

B) Fungi as a food

Fungi are used as high cost food because of its high protein and low calorific value.
Europe, America, Australia and Japan are very playing industries in mushroom cultivation.

Some of the edible fungi (Mushrooms)are given as below.

1) Agaricus compestris

2) Volvariella (paddy straw mushroom)

3) Morchella (Temperate zone mushroom)

4) Pleurotus sp. (oyster mushroom)

5) Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom)

C) Fungi as a rich source of SCP

Fungi are used as the rich sources of Single Cell Proteins. Some of the fungi for SCP are given as

1) Yeast (S. cerevisae)

2) Aspergillus niger

3) Penicillium chrysogenum

4) Fusarium avenacum

5) Neurospora sitoplila

D) Isolation of fungal metabolites of pharmaceutical importance

Aspergillus nidulans and other fungi are used for isolation of secondary metabolites. The secondary metabolites are used as drug. Ergot alkaloids (Ergometrin and Ergotoin) and Lovastatin, a popular cholesterol-lowering drug are the secondary metabolites.
Fungal metabolites have antitumour, antiviral, antibacterial and immunosuppressants activities.

E) Fungal pathogens as nibblers

Fungal pathogens are use as root nibblers to produce many root fibers that increase the maximum uptake of nutrients and water for more yield.Trichoderma viridae and fusarium has shown increased number of root fibres in Tomato & Maize plants.

F) Fungi in improving the quality of produce

It is evidence that some fungal diseases can enhance the nutritional quality of food & feed. E.g. smutted corn and rust infected wheat grains have more carbohydrate and phosphorus contents as compare to healthy plants.

G) Fungi as biofertilizes

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae are the mutualistic symbiosis between the roots of higher plants and certain fungi. The mycorrhizae help in the phosphate nutrition of plants and protect the roots by forming the mantle.

H) Fungi as “Microbial weed killer “(Bioherbicides)

Fungi are known for its quite specific& effective action and have low residual effects in comparison with synthetic pesticides. Here are given some fungi as bioherbicides.

Fungi are used as bioherbicides,some examples with their targets are given in brackets.These are Septagloeum gillis (Mistletoes)

Wallrothiella arecuthobii (Mistletoes)

Colletotrichum gloeosporiordes(Mistletoes)

Phyllosticta (Glycosmis)

Leptosphaerulina trifolia(Passiflora)

Puccinia chondrillina(Rush weed)

Cercospora ageratinae(Pamakani weed)

I) Cellulose degradation by fungi

Heap of agricultural residues, forest residues deposited ample of celluloses in the soil. Only fungal cellulases are involved in degradation of deposited cellulose. Fusarium, Trichoderma, Penicillium derived cellulases are involved in degradation of celluloses.  Degradation of these leads maximum bioenergy production. Some of the other fungal enzymes are ? gluconase and ? glucosidase (cellobiase).

J) Bioconversion of lignin

White Rot fungi such as Coriolus versicolor, Polyporus ance and Brown Rot fungi like Poria monticola, Lenzitis trabea are used in depolymerization and degradation of lignin to low molecular weight Petroleum products. These fungi are also used in softening of wood in paper making industries.

K) Entamopathogenic fungi

This group of fungi secretes the toxin, which possesses the entemocidalproperties. The role of entamopathogenic fungi, its products and effects are given as below.

L) Industrial Applications of fungi

Fungi are widely used in fermentative industries for the production of ethanol, organic acids, antibiotics and enzymes like fungal cellulases, ? gluconase and ? glycosidase. Certain fungi like P.notatum, P.crysogenum and Cenococcum Sp.are used in antibiotics production where as S.cerevisae and Monilia Sp. are used in ethanol production. Fungi are also useful in ripening of cheese and processing of other products.

M) Biodegradation of pesticides/ Toxic chemicals and petroleum

White Rot fungi have the potential role in degradation of toxic pesticides like DDT, PCB and Lindane. In addition to this, it can degrade certain toxic chemicals like dioxin, benzopyrene, cyanides, azides, CCl4 and Pentachlorophenol (PCP). Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces and Fusarium has found to be involved in petroleum degradation at 30 0C in contaminated soil.

N) Biodegradation of Azo dye and Hydrocarbons

Peroxidase enzyme of Penicillium crysosporium & Streptomyces sps. have potential biodegradable activities that degrade Amaranth dye, Orange G, heterocyclic dyes like, Azure B and Lip dye. The filamentous fungi are also having role in degradation of toxic hydrocarbons.

O) Fungi in Hazardous waste remediation

Fungi help in remediation of explosive contaminated soil by its lignin degrading Enzymes

TNT, RDX, HMX are some of the potential explosives that contaminates soil and water. Other degradable nitro explosives by Pleurotus ostreatus are as follows:




1-Methoxy 4 nitrobenzene

2-Methoxy 4-nitro phenol

1, 2, di Methoxy 4 nitrobenzene

P) Biomineralization of Heavy Metals

The fungi have eminent role in the removal & recovery of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents. Hg, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd are extracted at pH 2-5 by myceliar beads of Penicillium.


Fungi are the organisms that have potential role in degradation of explosives. It is observed by repeated laboratory studies involving pure cultures of white rot fungi. It also helps in degradation of hydrocarbons in the environment. Fungi attract considerable attention due to their possible involvement in the diverse applications. So far, large numbers of enzymes have been purified from fungal cultures and characterized in terms of their biochemical and catalytic properties. It possesses antimicrobial activities and is used in biomineralization, as a food for its high protein contents and as a biofertilizers.


1) S.D. Aust, Degradation of environmental pollutants by phanerochaete-chrysosporium. Microbial Ecol 20:197-204. (1990)

2) J.A.Bumpus, S.D.Aust, Biodegradation of environmental pollutants by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium: involvement of the lignin degrading system. BioEssays 6:166-170 (1987)

3) R.L. Crawford Lignin biodegradation and transformation. New York: John Wiley, (1981)

4) N.Capalash, and P. Sharma, Biodegradation of textile azo dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.  8: 309-312. (1992)

5) M. Freitag, and J. J. Morell, Decolorization of the polymeric dye Poly R-478 by wood-inhabiting fungi.  Can. J. Microbiol.  38: 811-822. (1992)

6) E. Gogna, R. Vohra, and P. Sharma, Biodegradation of Rose Bengal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  Lett. Appl. Microbiol.  14: 58-60. (1992)

7) Paszczynski, V.B. Huynh, and R.L. Crawford, Comparison of ligninase-1 and peroxidase M-2 from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 244: 750-765. (1986)

8) T.L.Highley, Appl Environ Microbiol, 40:1145-1147. (1980)

9) W. Zhou and W. Zimmermann, Decolorization of industrial effluents containing reactive dyes by actinomycetes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett.  107: 157-162. (1993)

10) J.G.Leahy, R.R.Colwell, Microbiol Rev, 54:305-15. (1990)

by Ravi Dhande
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