Smart Learning Games

The scientists succeeded in developing a new computer game called 'Gorge'. This game is designed to help children in understanding, Artificial Intelligence or commonly known as Artificial Intelligence (AI), their understanding can be obtained through the games and they even can change the game as they wish. This game can also develop social interaction skills of the child.
Popular Themes
Intelligent robots become vivid and real - this is a popular theme in science fiction films. The result of his creation to escape from their creator, the creation has feelings, the result of his creation become smarter than humans, and eventually they attempt to conquer the world. The phenomenon of Artificial Intelligence, or abbreviated as AI, has attracted the attention of people even before his day Frankenstein. Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT in Ilmenau now plans to teach the children about what it is AI. "For that, we have developed a simple computer game that we named 'Gorge." Said Prof. Klaus Peter Jantke, head of the department IDMT. "Gorge allows the children to know how the AI through the game, because children could affect her own," Gorge simple rules: Members of the team must move on a board to achieve a particular goal, just like a game of 'Ludo'. A dice is used to determine where the team members must move. Push and move the other team members are allowed - so if any member of the team move to an existing box where other team members, then the other team members were moved to the next box is empty. Intersect each other on track by vacuum box - the name of the game. One team member can pass an empty box when the other team members who assisted. Then the team members can decide whether to help other team members to come out or let him die in an empty box that had - in other words, he could put himself as a hero or a villain.
Making Rules
"The great thing of this game is not only we can fight other people. We can also play against the computer, or it could be a computer against another computer, "said Jantke" This is even more fun, because we can set how 'good' or how 'bad' computer. "For example, a player can make a rule that defines: 'If you find someone in the box, then you should always release them.' Or 'Do not ever get into the empty box.' Thus, the children can decide whether they would rather play with the opponent to play a good or evil. And they might notice what kind of behavior patterns developed by the AI engine, whether the behavior is more aggressive or more defensive. What happens if some criminals playing each other each other? Who would win if all the good players? Are all the good will always overcome evil? The children could see an interesting observation about AI and learn a lot from this game. The researchers will show a prototype at the Hannover.
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Learning Smart

Do you feel that learning is something that is irksome, irritating, or even scary? Are you not as smart as brothers, relatives, neighbors or even classmates your coworkers? If so, it's time you shout STOP.
Every Normal Man is born with similar brain capacity, ie 1.2 kg in men, and 200 grams less in women. This means, everyone has the same potential for success, including in terms of learning. When you've felt study hard, diligent but still not getting the desired results, it means there is something wrong with your LEARNING METHOD, or most likely you do not have a method of study at all! If so, maps of Intelligent Learning Success (mind mapping) can be an alternative method of intelligent learning-efficient and effective.
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Stimulating the Potential of the Brain child

Merangsang Potensi Otak anak - tingkat kecerdasan
encountered a lot of children who have been hours reading notes or textbooks to school but none can dihapalnya sentence. There is also a visible sat calm (quiet but notice) in class listening to teachers' explanations, but after finishing the lesson there is no recall at all that explained everything from the beginning was the teacher. if the child was really stupid?
Study Tips - Intelligence children
why can happen like that? One is because learning the wrong way on the child. According to Bobby Hartanto, M. Psi, an expert in the field of human resources, many teachers and parents who do not understand the child's learning style.
"Some people are easier to remember when learning materials provided through the pictures, there are also more like to listen to, and there's a passing movement. Beda learning styles, different well stimulation," he said in a seminar on child growth held by the Frisian flag in Jakarta (22 / 7).
For children who have auditory learning styles, children old enough to catch the lesson by listening to teacher explanations. But children need the type of visual display pictures. In contrast with the child's kinesthetic types that require movement or palpation.
"Actually it would be better if all aspects are used. Because the more varitif way, the easier child to remember material presented," he explained.
Another thing to note is the parents and educators understand how the brain works. "The human brain loves color and image. That's why a picture will be significantly more than 1000 words," he explained.
To convey a message or a specific value, Bobby suggested that given in the form of posters and colorful picture. For example to convey about the culture of queuing, honesty, and so forth.
Research shows, someone who is good stimulation, the brain more closely than people who rarely stimulated. "Density is related to the added connections between brain cells," says Bobby.
The formation of new habits will form new connections, while the repetition of the old cell will strengthen the connection. "Give children a variety of stimulation and do repetitions as often as possible in order to continue to form connections between brain cells," he said.
Certainly no less important to create an enjoyable learning atmosphere and does not cause stress in children. Do it outside of the classroom learning activities, group discussions, games interesting, and many other ways that can dig interests of the children.
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10 Ways Smart Learning

Learning suddenly before the exam was not effective. At least one month before the test is not an ideal time for repeat studies. A lot of material that is not a problem. There are ten smart way so that when we learn to become effective.

1. Learning is understood not merely memorize

Yep, the main function is why we must learn to understand new things. We can 100% memorized every detail of the lesson, but more important is whether we have understood very well with all the material that dihapal. So before memorizing, always try to first understand the outline of lesson material.

2. Reading is the key to learning

So we can understand, at least read the new material twice a day, ie before and after the material is explained by teachers. Because the brain has to process as many as three times the material can be guaranteed to be stored long enough in our brain.

3. Noting the points lessons

Leave a lesson a long note. Take the gist or conclusion of each lesson that have been read back. These key words that will be useful when we repeat the lessons during the exam.

4. Hapalkan key words

Sometimes, inevitably we have to memorize the lesson which is quite a lot. Actually this could disiasati. Make the key words from each hapalan, so easy to remember at the time we call the brain. For example, the keyword for the names of the colors of the rainbow is MEJIKUHIBINIU, meaning red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.

5. Select the appropriate study time

Learn the most convenient time is on our bodies saaat still fresh. Indeed, not all people have the time to learn the same bad lo. But usually, the morning is the perfect time to concentrate fully. Use this time to process new materials. Remnants of energy could be used to repeat a lesson and do homework.

6th. Build a comfortable learning atmosphere

Many things can create a comfortable learning atmosphere. We can select songs that match our mood. Places we can also learn to adjust. If you're bored in the room could be on the terrace or in the library. The key lest we interfere with learning activities and disturbed by the other party.

7. Forms Study Groups

Then again bored self-learning, can learn together with your friends. Do not worry a lot because it would not be effective, a maximum of five people. Create the distribution of materials for each person studied. Then each person took turns explaining the material under their control to all other members. The atmosphere of learning is usually fun and we are going to be hard to sleepy guaranteed.

8. Train our own capabilities

In fact, we can train our own brainpower. At the end of every chapter, lesson, it is usually always given practice questions. Without waiting for instructions from the teacher, try to answer all these questions and check the extent of our ability. If the material is not the answer in the book, try to ask the teacher.

9. Develop materials that have been learned

If we had repeated the material and answer all the practice questions, do not immediately close the book. Try our critical thinking in the style of a scientist. Make several questions that have not been included in the exercises. Ask the teacher to answer. If not satisfied, find the answer in other reference books or the Internet. In this way invites us to always think ahead and critical.

10. Take time to rest

Learning may be hard, but do not forget to rest. If in class, every lesson to use to relax the rest of body and mind. Every 30-45 minutes of study time at home we are always snacks with a break. If the mind is whole, it's useless to impose themselves. After the break, a fresh body and brain are ready to accept new material.

One again, the purpose of the test and the test is to measure the extent of our ability to understand the subject matter in school. Besides answering practice questions, there is another way to test whether we have understood in a material or not. Let us explain with words alone every material that has been studied. If we can explain clearly and regularly - no need to detail - means that we already understand.
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Assessment of Learning Outcomes

A. Understanding Evaluation, Measurement, Test and Assessment

Many people mix up the notion of evaluation, measurement , test and assessment, whereas the fourth has a different understanding. Evaluation is identifying activities to see if a program has been planned have been achieved or not, valuable or not, and also to see the level of efficiency in implementation. Evaluation of decisions related to value (value judgment). Stufflebeam (Abin Makmun Shamsuddin, 1996) memengemukakan that: educational evaluation is the process of delineating, obtaining, and Providing useful, information for judging decision alternatives. Stufflebeam of view, we can see that the essence of the evaluation of the interests of providing information for decision making. In education, we can carry out evaluation of the new curriculum, an education policy, specific learning resources, or work ethics of teachers.

Measurement is the process of granting or business figures obtained from a numerical description of the extent to which learners have achieved a certain characteristic.

Assessment is implementing a variety of ways and using various assessment tools to obtain information on the extent of learning outcomes or achievement for learners competence (range of ability) learners. Assessment to answer questions about how well the result or achievement of a participant didik.Hasil value assessment can be qualitative (narrative statement in words) and quantitative value (a number). Measurements associated with the process of finding or determination of the quantitative value.

The test is a way of assessment is designed and implemented to students at a particular time and place and under conditions that meet certain requirements are clear.

Specifically, in the context of learning in the classroom, assessment is conducted to determine the progress and results of study of students, diagnosing learning difficulties, provide feedback / improvement of teaching and learning process, and determining the increase of the classroom. Through the assessment can be obtained accurate information about the organization of teaching and learning success of students, teachers, and the learning process itself. Based on that information, we can make decisions about learning, learners difficulties and the effort necessary guidance and presence of itself kurikukulum.

B. Assessment objectives

Assessment has a very important purpose in learning, such as for grading, selection, knowing the level of mastery of competencies, counseling, diagnosis, and prediction.

1. For grading, the assessment is intended to define or distinguish the position of student work compared with other learners. This assessment will indicate the position of students in the sequence compared with other children. Therefore, the function of assessment for the grading tends to compare the child with other children so that more refer to the assessment of reference norm (norm-referenced assessment).
2. As a selection tool, intended for separate assessment of incoming students in a particular category and what does not. Learners are allowed to enter certain schools or who are not allowed. In this case, the assessment function to determine a person can enter or not a particular school.
3. To illustrate the extent to which a student has mastered the competencies.
4. As guidance, the assessment aims to evaluate the results of study of students in order to help learners understand themselves, make decisions about next steps, both to program selection, personality development and for the majors.
5. As a means of diagnosis, assessment of learning aims to show the difficulties experienced by learners and the possibility of achievement that can be developed. This will help teachers determine if someone needs remidiasi or enrichment.
6th. As a means of prediction, assessment aims to obtain information that can predict how the performance of students in the next education level or in suitable employment. Examples of this assessment is the scholastic aptitude tests or tests of academic potential.

From the sixth objective assessment, in order to see the level of mastery of competencies, mentoring, and diagnostics is a major role in the assessment.

In accordance with these objectives, the assessment requires teachers to directly or indirectly capable of carrying out the assessment in the overall learning process. To assess how far the students have mastered a variety of competencies, of course various types of assessment needs to be given in accordance with the competencies to be assessed, such as performance , assignment (project), works (products), a collection of students' work (portfolio) , and a written assessment (paper and pencil test). So the purpose of assessment is to provide feedback information about the results of comprehensive study of students, both viewed as the learning activities take place and when viewed from the end result, using various ways in accordance with the competency assessment that is expected to reach learners.

C. Assessment Approach

There are two approaches that can be used in assessment of learning outcomes, namely the assessment which refers to the norm (Norm Reference Assessment or norm-referenced assessment) and assessment criteria refer to (Reference Assessment Criteria or criterion referenced assessment). The second difference lies in the approach of the references used. In the assessment, which refers to the norms, interpretation of assessment results of students associated with the assessment of all students assessed with the same assessment tool. So the results of all students is used as a reference. Meanwhile, referring to the assessment criteria or standards, interpretation of the results of the assessment depends on whether or to what extent a learner to achieve or master the criteria or standards that have been determined. Criteria or benchmarks were formulated in the competencies or learning outcomes in competency-based curriculum.

In the implementation of competency-based curriculum, assessment approach used is based on the assessment criteria or a benchmark. In this case the learner achievement is determined by the criteria established for mastery of a competency. However, sometimes the norm reference assessment can be used for certain specific purposes in accordance with their uses, such as for selecting learners into study group and which, for grouping students in learning activities, and for selecting students who represent the school in inter-race school.

D. Scope of Learning Outcomes Assessment

Student learning outcomes can be classified into three domains, namely: (1) cognitive domain (knowledge or language that includes intelligence and wit logic - mathematics), (2) affective domain (attitudes and values or that include intelligence and interpersonal intrapersonal intelligence, in other words, emotional intelligence), and (3) psychomotor domain (skills or that include kinesthetic intelligence, visual-spatial intelligence and musical intelligence).

The extent to which each of these domains contribute to a successful person in work and life? Multi-intelligence data of the research shows that intelligence language and logic-mathematical intelligence are included in the cognitive domain has a contribution only amounted to 5%. Interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence which affective domain includes a very large contribution is 80%. While kinesthetic intelligence, visual-spatial intelligence and musical intelligence are included in the psychomotor domain contribute 5%

However, in the praxis of education in Indonesia is reflected in the teaching-learning process and rating, a very dominant instead emphasized the cognitive domain. This domain is mainly reflected in four groups of subjects, namely language, mathematics, science, and social sciences. Psychomotor domain is mainly reflected in the subjects of physical education, skills, and tend to be underrated art. Similarly, this happens in the affective domain is particularly reflected in the subjects of religion and nationality.

So that the emphasis in developing this domain third-adjusted proportion of each domain contribute to the success in your work and life, teachers need to understand the meaning and domain of each level and how to apply them in the teaching-learning process and rating.

Paradigm shift in education from the constructivist Behavioristic not only requires a change in the learning process, but also include changes in implementing the student learning assessment. In the old paradigm, more emphasis on the assessment of learning outcomes (product) and tend to only assess cognitive abilities, which are sometimes reduced in such a way through the form of an objective test. Meanwhile, the assessment of affective and psychomotor aspects often ignored.

In constructivism-based learning, learning assessment is not only intended to measure the level of cognitive ability alone, but includes all aspects of student's personality, such as: moral development, emotional development, social development and other aspects of the personality of other individuals. Similarly, the assessment does not only rely on the assessment of products, but also consider the terms of the process.

All this requires a change in approach and techniques assessing student learning. For this reason, the National Education Ministry (2006) launched the signs student learning assessment, with what is called the Appraisal Class.
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Milk Chocolate is more effective than energy drink

Ads energy drink may have been familiar to most people. Starting from the form of sachets, cans or bottles. But fat-free chocolate milk proved to be more efficacious than the restoring force athletes variety of energy drinks.

Experts agree that the recovery of energy for athletes two hours after exercise or other heavy activity is important. But this is often ignored.

Yet after heavy activity, the recovery period is important for active people. This is to help maximize your stamina and maintain equipment performance excellence in the next activity.

Researchers found that fat-free chocolate milk can keep the body, fill and rebuild the muscles to help the body recover.

Fat-free chocolate milk is more effective than the liquid carbohydrate specifically designed to add energy.

As quoted from the Telegraph, Friday (06/04/2010), these findings have been published by James Madison University at the conference of the American College of Sports Medicine, in Seattle.

Drinking fat-free chocolate milk after exercise or activity that emits a lot of energy, can help prepare your muscles for the game or the next activity.

The combination of carbohydrates and proteins contained in milk chocolate found in the ratio of the most profitable and best suited to restore power.

As quoted from SawfNews, specifically researchers discovered the benefits of milk chocolate, which is to:

1. Build back muscle

Fat-free chocolate milk better able to increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis, which means that is a sign that muscles are better able to repair and rebuild, rather than an addition to carbohydrate energy drinks with the same number of calories.

2. Filling the 'fuel' muscles are depleted

Studies show that chocolate milk has a mix of carbohydrates and protein to help fill the muscles 'fuel' is low, namely glycogen. It is important to restore stamina and muscle. Protein in fat-free chocolate milk also helps build lean muscle.

3. Reduce muscle damage

Athletes at risk of muscle damage after strenuous exercise and perform. Researchers found that fat-free chocolate milk after exercise can help reduce the muscle damage.

4. Replace lost body fluids

Milk chocolate also provide rehydration fluids and electrolytes in the body, such as potassium, calcium and magnesium is lost in sweat. Both fluids are required in order to maintain the condition of the body remains healthy and can replace lost energy after heavy activity.
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Learning Disabilities

"Learning disability" is a general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. A learning disability can cause a person to have trouble learning and using certain skills.. The skills most often affected are the following: There reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and doing math.
Learning disabilities or LD vary from person to person. One person with learning disabilities may not have the same kind of learning problems as another person with learning disabilities.
One person may have trouble with reading and writing. Another person with learning disabilities may have problems with understanding math. Still another person may have trouble in each of these areas, as well as with understanding what people are saying.
Researchers think that learning disabilities are caused by differences in how a person's brain works and how it processes information. Children with learning disabilities are not "dumb" or "lazy." In fact, they usually have average or above average intelligence. Their brains just process information differently.
The definition of "learning disability" just below comes from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The IDEA is the federal law that guides how schools provide special education and related services to children with disabilities.
There is no "cure" for learning disabilities. They are life-long. However, children with learning disabilities can be high achievers and can be taught ways to get around the learning disability. With the right help, children with learning disabilities can and do learn successfully.

How common are learning disabilities?

Very common! As many as 1 out of every 5 people in the United States has a learning disability. Almost 3 million children (ages 6 through 21) have some form of a learning disability and receive special education in school. In fact, over half of all children who receive special education have a learning disability (Twenty-fourth Annual Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Education, 2002).

What are the signs of a learning disability?

There is no one sign that shows a person has a learning disability. Experts look for a noticeable difference between how well a child does in school and how well he or she could do, given his or her intelligence or ability. There are also certain clues that may mean a child has a learning disability. We've listed a few below. Most relate to elementary school tasks, because learning disabilities tend to be identified in elementary school. A child probably won't show all of these signs, or even most of them. However, if a child shows a number of these problems, then parents and the teacher should consider the possibility that the child has a learning disability.
When a child has a learning disability, he/she:
  • may have trouble learning the alphabet, rhyming words, or connecting letters to their sounds;
  • may make many mistakes when reading aloud, and repeat and pause often;
  • may not understand what he or she reads;
  • may have real trouble with spelling;
  • may have very messy handwriting or hold a pencil awkwardly;
  • may struggle to express ideas in writing;
  • may learn language late and have a limited vocabulary;
  • may have trouble remembering the sounds that letters make or hearing slight differences between words;
  • may have trouble understanding jokes, comic strips, and sarcasm;
  • may have trouble following directions;
  • may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that sounds similar;
  • may have trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or not be able to think of the word he or she needs for writing or conversation;
  • may not follow the social rules of conversation, such as taking turns, and may stand too close to the listener;
  • may confuse math symbols and misread numbers;
  • may not be able to retell a story in order (what happened first, second, third); or
  • may not know where to begin a task or how to go on from there.
If a child has unexpected problems learning to read, write, listen, speak, or do math, then teachers and parents may want to investigate more. The same is true if the child is struggling to do any one of these skills. The child may need to be evaluated to see if he or she has a learning disability.

Tips for parents of children with learning disabilities

Learn about learning disabilities. The more you know, the more you can help yourself and your child. See the list of resources and organizations at the end of this article.
  • Praise your child when he or she does well. Children with learning disabilities are often very good at a variety of things. Find out what your child really enjoys doing, such as dancing, playing soccer, or working with computers. Give your child plenty of opportunities to pursue his or her strengths and talents.

  • Find out the ways your child learns best. Does he or she learn by hands-on practice, looking, or listening? Help your child learn through his or her areas of strength.

  • Let your child help with household chores. These can build self-confidence and concrete skills. Keep instructions simple, break down tasks into smaller steps, and reward your child's efforts with praise.

  • Make homework a priority. Read more about how to help your child be a success at homework. (See resource list at the end.)

  • Pay attention to your child's mental health (and your own!). Be open to counseling, which can help your child deal with frustration, feel better about himself or herself, and learn more about social skills.

  • Talk to other parents whose children have learning disabilities. Parents can share practical advice and emotional support. Call NICHCY (1.800.695.0285) and ask how to find parent groups near you. Also let us put you in touch with the parent training and information (PTI) center in your state.

  • Meet with school personnel and help develop an educational plan to address your child's needs. Plan what accommodations your child needs, and don't forget to talk about assistive technology!

  • Establish a positive working relationship with your child's teacher. Through regular communication, exchange information about your child's progress at home and at school.

Tips for teachers of children with learning disabilities

Learn as much as you can about the different types of learning disabilities. The resources and organizations at the end of this document can help you identify specific techniques and strategies to support the student educationally.
Seize the opportunity to make an enormous difference in this student's life! Find out and emphasize what the student's strengths and interests are. Give the student positive feedback and lots of opportunities for practice.
Review the student's evaluation records to identify where specifically the student has trouble. Talk to specialists in your school (e.g., special education teacher) about methods for teaching this student. Provide instruction and accommodations to address the student's special needs. Examples include:
  • breaking tasks into smaller steps, and giving directions verbally and in writing;

  • giving the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests;

  • letting the student with reading problems use textbooks-on-tape (available through Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic, listed under "For more information");

  • letting the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder; and

  • letting the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech.
Learn about the different testing modifications that can really help a student with learning disabilities show what he or she has learned.
Teach organizational skills, study skills, and learning strategies. These help all students but are particularly helpful to those with learning disabilities.
Work with the student's parents to create an educational plan tailored to meet the student's needs.
Establish a positive working relationship with the student's parents. Through regular communication, exchange information about the student's progress at school.

Is there any treatment for learning disabilities?

The most common treatment for learning disabilities is special education. Specially trained educators may perform a diagnostic educational evaluation assessing the child's academic and intellectual potential and level of academic performance. Once the evaluation is complete, the basic approach is to teach learning skills by building on the child's abilities and strengths while correcting and compensating for disabilities and weaknesses. Other professionals such as speech and language therapists also may be involved. Some medications may be effective in helping the child learn by enhancing attention and concentration. Psychological therapies may also be used.

What is the prognosis for learning disabilities?

Learning disabilities can be lifelong conditions. In some people, several overlapping learning disabilities may be apparent. Other people may have a single, isolated learning problem that has little impact on their lives.

What research is being done for learning disabilities?

The NINDS and other institutes of the National Institutes of Health including the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, and the National Institute of Mental Health support research on learning disabilities. Current research avenues focus on developing techniques to diagnose and treat learning disabilities and increase understanding of the biological basis of learning disabilities.

by Michelle Taño

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Language Learning Principle: The Native Language Effect

It almost goes without saying that the native language of every learner is an extremely significant factor in the acquisition of a new language. Most of the time, we think of the native language as excercising an interfering effect on the target language, and indeed the most salient, observable effect does appear-to be one of interference (see PLLT, Chapter 8). The majority of a learner’s errors in producing the second language, especially in the beginning levels, stem from the learner’s assumption that the target language operates like the native language.
But what we observe may, like an iceberg, be only part of the reality. The facilitating effects of the native language are surely as powerful in the process, or more so, even though they are less observable. When the native French speaker who is learning English says “I am here since january”, there is one salient native language effect, averb tense error stemming from French. But the learner’s native French may also have facilitated the production of that sentence’s subject-verb-complement word order, the placement of the locative (here), the one-to-one grammatical correspondence of the other words in the sentence, rules governing preposotional pharese, and the cognate word (January).
The principle of the Native Language Effect stresses the importance of that native system in hte linguistic attempts of the second language learner.
The native language of learners exerts a strong influence on the acquisition of hte target languge system. While that native system will exxercise both facilitating and interfering effects on hte production and comprehension of hte new language, hte interfering effects are likely to be the most salient.
In your dealing with the Native Language Effect in the classroom, your feedback will most often focus on interference. That’s perfectly sound pedagogy. Learners’ errors stand out like the tips of icebergs, giving us salient signals of an underlying system at work. Wrrors are, in fact, windows to a learner’s internalized understanding of the second language, and therefore they give teachers something observable to react to. Student non-errors-the facilitating effects-certainly do not need to be treated. Don’t try to fix something that isn’t broken.
Some classroom sugestions stemming from the Native Language Effect:
1.    Regard learners’ errors as important windows to their underlying systerm and provide appropriate feedback on them (see Principle 11 and Chapter 17 for more information on feedback). Errors of native language interference may be repaired by acquainting the learner with the native language cause of the error.
2.    Ideally, every successful learner will hold on to the facilitafing effects of the native language and discard the interference. Help your students to under stand that not everything about their native language system will cause error.
3.    Thinking directly in the target language usually helps to minimize interference errors. Try to coax students into thinking in the second language instead of resorting to translation as they comprehend and produce language. An occasional translation of  a word or phrase can actually be helpful, especially for adults, but direct use of the second language will help to avoid the first language “crutch”syndrome.
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When Creativity Rules Your Mind

Mario theme with a remote control car

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Potential Applications of Fungi; a Biotechnological Aproach

Fungi are prominent sources of pharmaceuticals and are used in many industrial fermentative processes, such as the production of enzymes, vitamins, pigments, lipids, glycolipids, polysaccharides and polyhydric alcohols.

During the past 50 years, several major advancements in medicine came from lower organisms such as molds, yeasts and the other diver’s fungi. Fungi are extremely useful in making high value products like mycoproteins and acts as plant growth promoters and disease suppressor. Fungal secondary metabolites are important to our health and nutrition and have tremendous economic impact. In addition to this, fungi are extremely useful in carrying out biotransformation processes. Recombinant DNA technology, which includes yeasts and other fungi as hosts, has markedly increased market for microbial enzymes.

Today, fungal biotechnology is a major participant in the global industry due to its mind blowing potential.

A) Designing of vectors

Yeast vectors are used in genetic engineering. E.g., shuttle vectors are used for expression
of desirable gene in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.
YAC, YRP, YIP, YEP are some other yeast vectors.

B) Fungi as a food

Fungi are used as high cost food because of its high protein and low calorific value.
Europe, America, Australia and Japan are very playing industries in mushroom cultivation.

Some of the edible fungi (Mushrooms)are given as below.

1) Agaricus compestris

2) Volvariella (paddy straw mushroom)

3) Morchella (Temperate zone mushroom)

4) Pleurotus sp. (oyster mushroom)

5) Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom)

C) Fungi as a rich source of SCP

Fungi are used as the rich sources of Single Cell Proteins. Some of the fungi for SCP are given as

1) Yeast (S. cerevisae)

2) Aspergillus niger

3) Penicillium chrysogenum

4) Fusarium avenacum

5) Neurospora sitoplila

D) Isolation of fungal metabolites of pharmaceutical importance

Aspergillus nidulans and other fungi are used for isolation of secondary metabolites. The secondary metabolites are used as drug. Ergot alkaloids (Ergometrin and Ergotoin) and Lovastatin, a popular cholesterol-lowering drug are the secondary metabolites.
Fungal metabolites have antitumour, antiviral, antibacterial and immunosuppressants activities.

E) Fungal pathogens as nibblers

Fungal pathogens are use as root nibblers to produce many root fibers that increase the maximum uptake of nutrients and water for more yield.Trichoderma viridae and fusarium has shown increased number of root fibres in Tomato & Maize plants.

F) Fungi in improving the quality of produce

It is evidence that some fungal diseases can enhance the nutritional quality of food & feed. E.g. smutted corn and rust infected wheat grains have more carbohydrate and phosphorus contents as compare to healthy plants.

G) Fungi as biofertilizes

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae are the mutualistic symbiosis between the roots of higher plants and certain fungi. The mycorrhizae help in the phosphate nutrition of plants and protect the roots by forming the mantle.

H) Fungi as “Microbial weed killer “(Bioherbicides)

Fungi are known for its quite specific& effective action and have low residual effects in comparison with synthetic pesticides. Here are given some fungi as bioherbicides.

Fungi are used as bioherbicides,some examples with their targets are given in brackets.These are Septagloeum gillis (Mistletoes)

Wallrothiella arecuthobii (Mistletoes)

Colletotrichum gloeosporiordes(Mistletoes)

Phyllosticta (Glycosmis)

Leptosphaerulina trifolia(Passiflora)

Puccinia chondrillina(Rush weed)

Cercospora ageratinae(Pamakani weed)

I) Cellulose degradation by fungi

Heap of agricultural residues, forest residues deposited ample of celluloses in the soil. Only fungal cellulases are involved in degradation of deposited cellulose. Fusarium, Trichoderma, Penicillium derived cellulases are involved in degradation of celluloses.  Degradation of these leads maximum bioenergy production. Some of the other fungal enzymes are ? gluconase and ? glucosidase (cellobiase).

J) Bioconversion of lignin

White Rot fungi such as Coriolus versicolor, Polyporus ance and Brown Rot fungi like Poria monticola, Lenzitis trabea are used in depolymerization and degradation of lignin to low molecular weight Petroleum products. These fungi are also used in softening of wood in paper making industries.

K) Entamopathogenic fungi

This group of fungi secretes the toxin, which possesses the entemocidalproperties. The role of entamopathogenic fungi, its products and effects are given as below.

L) Industrial Applications of fungi

Fungi are widely used in fermentative industries for the production of ethanol, organic acids, antibiotics and enzymes like fungal cellulases, ? gluconase and ? glycosidase. Certain fungi like P.notatum, P.crysogenum and Cenococcum Sp.are used in antibiotics production where as S.cerevisae and Monilia Sp. are used in ethanol production. Fungi are also useful in ripening of cheese and processing of other products.

M) Biodegradation of pesticides/ Toxic chemicals and petroleum

White Rot fungi have the potential role in degradation of toxic pesticides like DDT, PCB and Lindane. In addition to this, it can degrade certain toxic chemicals like dioxin, benzopyrene, cyanides, azides, CCl4 and Pentachlorophenol (PCP). Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces and Fusarium has found to be involved in petroleum degradation at 30 0C in contaminated soil.

N) Biodegradation of Azo dye and Hydrocarbons

Peroxidase enzyme of Penicillium crysosporium & Streptomyces sps. have potential biodegradable activities that degrade Amaranth dye, Orange G, heterocyclic dyes like, Azure B and Lip dye. The filamentous fungi are also having role in degradation of toxic hydrocarbons.

O) Fungi in Hazardous waste remediation

Fungi help in remediation of explosive contaminated soil by its lignin degrading Enzymes

TNT, RDX, HMX are some of the potential explosives that contaminates soil and water. Other degradable nitro explosives by Pleurotus ostreatus are as follows:




1-Methoxy 4 nitrobenzene

2-Methoxy 4-nitro phenol

1, 2, di Methoxy 4 nitrobenzene

P) Biomineralization of Heavy Metals

The fungi have eminent role in the removal & recovery of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents. Hg, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd are extracted at pH 2-5 by myceliar beads of Penicillium.


Fungi are the organisms that have potential role in degradation of explosives. It is observed by repeated laboratory studies involving pure cultures of white rot fungi. It also helps in degradation of hydrocarbons in the environment. Fungi attract considerable attention due to their possible involvement in the diverse applications. So far, large numbers of enzymes have been purified from fungal cultures and characterized in terms of their biochemical and catalytic properties. It possesses antimicrobial activities and is used in biomineralization, as a food for its high protein contents and as a biofertilizers.


1) S.D. Aust, Degradation of environmental pollutants by phanerochaete-chrysosporium. Microbial Ecol 20:197-204. (1990)

2) J.A.Bumpus, S.D.Aust, Biodegradation of environmental pollutants by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium: involvement of the lignin degrading system. BioEssays 6:166-170 (1987)

3) R.L. Crawford Lignin biodegradation and transformation. New York: John Wiley, (1981)

4) N.Capalash, and P. Sharma, Biodegradation of textile azo dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.  8: 309-312. (1992)

5) M. Freitag, and J. J. Morell, Decolorization of the polymeric dye Poly R-478 by wood-inhabiting fungi.  Can. J. Microbiol.  38: 811-822. (1992)

6) E. Gogna, R. Vohra, and P. Sharma, Biodegradation of Rose Bengal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  Lett. Appl. Microbiol.  14: 58-60. (1992)

7) Paszczynski, V.B. Huynh, and R.L. Crawford, Comparison of ligninase-1 and peroxidase M-2 from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 244: 750-765. (1986)

8) T.L.Highley, Appl Environ Microbiol, 40:1145-1147. (1980)

9) W. Zhou and W. Zimmermann, Decolorization of industrial effluents containing reactive dyes by actinomycetes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett.  107: 157-162. (1993)

10) J.G.Leahy, R.R.Colwell, Microbiol Rev, 54:305-15. (1990)

by Ravi Dhande
READ MORE - Potential Applications of Fungi; a Biotechnological Aproach

How to Become A Scientist

A scientist play big role in development of human life.  All we know and we use now is result of drudge works of scientist in the past. Therefore, to become a scientist, you must work hard and never give up until you reach your destination.

A Scientist begins an investigation by observing an object or an activity. Observation typically involves one or more of the human senses –hearing, sight, smell, taste, and touch. Scientists typically use tool to aid in their observation. For example, a microscope helps view away to be seen by the unaided eye.

Scientists typically apply their observation skills to an experiment. An experiment is any change the conditions under which events occur. It can be something extremely simple, such as heating a solid to see when it melts, of something highly complex, such as bouncing a radio signal off the surface of a distant planet. Scientists typically repeat experiments, sometimes many times, in order to be sure that the results were not affected by unforeseen factors.

Most experiments involve real objects in the physical world, such as electric circuits, chemical compounds, or living organisms. However, with the rapid progress in electronics, computer simulations can now carry out some experiments instead. If they are carefully constructed, these simulations or models can accurately predict how real objects will behave.
READ MORE - How to Become A Scientist

Scary Video, Natives thought that is a sea monster

in video above, some creatures eat the fish carcasses wildly in a few second. The remain is just a fish bone. It makes many natives scary. After reaserch, the reasercher have proved that creatures are not dangerous for human. evidently, that creatures is cirolana (latin name). In the reaserch, about 500 cirolanas are placed in an aquarium. then, someone sink his finger to that place. but, the result is cirolanas become scared, even they feigned death.
Cirolanas have a big role in food chain. They are eated by bigger fish in the sea. after the reaserch put a fish in the same aquarium, they are eaten by that fish.
READ MORE - Scary Video, Natives thought that is a sea monster

Green Jobs Mean Green Money and a Green Earth

The new buzzword in the economy is green jobs.  The Obama administration envisions green collar jobs to boost the lagging economy.  The industrial leaders of the renewable energy sector promote green collar jobs as the way towards increasing public awareness of the need for environmental protection while increasing the prospects for their bottom line. The environmentalists want green collar jobs to be more pervasive for the sake of Mother Earth.

Green Money
The better news for the Joes and Janes on the street is that green collar jobs mean green dollars on their pockets.  Pundits estimate that as many as 185,000 jobs can be generated by the end of 2010 and that figure is for the wind sector alone!

In the solar energy sector, the numbers are more impressive with 7 million jobs created by the year 2030.  Of course, it may seem way off into the future but that future starts its roll today.  Thus, professionals and skilled workers are advised to hone their skills for green jobs as early as possible.

Efforts along this line will be well rewarded. Many online pay scale sites have discovered in surveys that solar and wind energy workers earn more than their counterparts with similar skills in other industries.  Even entry level green energy  jobs like solar power installer and wind turbine fabricator can earn at least $36,100 per year, depending on the skills, expertise and experience of the individual as well as the location of the projects.

Another good thing about green jobs aside from the better pay is the upward mobility possible.  Workers can move up the ranks with experience, seniority and advanced training depending on company policy.

Of course, higher education in colleges as well as professional licenses matter with green energy  jobs but not as much as one expected them to since even high school graduates can enter the workforce.  More often than not, one should have transferable skills that can be repurposed as well as the right training for the solar and wind energy sectors.

Green Earth
Green collar jobs also benefit the Earth as well as the pockets of its human inhabitants.  Keep in mind that the definition of green collar jobs almost always center on the positive impact, either direct or indirect, of the activities involved on the Earth itself.

Thus, you will read of definitions whereby green collar jobs should generate and use renewable energy, conserve natural resources, minimize waste and use of hazardous materials, promote biodiversity and a healthy ecosystem and lessen greenhouse gas emissions, to name a few goals. Indeed, green jobs are green precisely because these make for a greener Earth in more ways than one.

However, it cannot be overemphasized that gaining employable access to the green sector is not as easy as it seems.  Of course, one can always directly apply to companies dealing in renewable energy particularly solar and wind power, which are the largest and fastest-growing niches in the industry, but it is always better to have previous training.

Thus, we strongly suggest going back to school for training in either niches.  You will only spend a few months or years earning your certification and/or associate's degree but the rewards will be for the long-term.  This way, green jobs are yours for the taking, thanks to your educational advantage.

by Rose
READ MORE - Green Jobs Mean Green Money and a Green Earth

Survey finds men lie more than women

We are all bound to lie every once in a while, but new UK research has found that men lie more than women and are less likely to suffer a guilty conscience.

The survey, commissioned by London's Science MuseumThe average male tells 1,092 lies every year and is less likely to suffer a guilty conscience for lying than the typical woman.

By contrast, the average woman will come out with 728 untruths per year.

And while men said their lies were most likely to relate to their drinking habits, the most popular female falsehood is: ''Nothing's wrong, I'm fine''.

According to the findings, people are most likely to spin a yarn to their mothers with 25 per cent of men and 20 per cent of women admitting to this.

By comparison, only 10 per cent of respondents said they were likely to deceive their partners.

But while 82 per cent of females questioned said telling a lie ate away at their conscience, only 70 per cent of men confessed to pangs of guilt.

Some 75 per cent of people polled agreed it was ''ok'' to fib to save someone's feelings.

''Lying may seem to be an unavoidable part of human nature but it's an important part of social interaction,'' said Katie Maggs, associate medical curator at the Science Museum, which commissioned the study.

''The jury is still out as to whether human quirks like lying are the result of our genes, evolution or our upbringing.''

The study showed almost one fifth of people believe lie detection is acceptable to use in everyday life, with more than one in 10 saying it was acceptable in the workplace.

Meanwhile, three-quarters of people felt the process was ''fine to use'' in criminal cases.

Ms Maggs added: ''Only a few people appear to accurately detect when someone is lying, but high-tech developers today are working on creating more accurate technology.

''Whether we will soon be using accurate lie detectors in the home or at work is hard to say, but it won't be long before this technology is readily available.''

Market researchers OnePoll spoke to 3,000 adults for the survey.

The poll has been released ahead of the launch of the revamped Who am I? gallery at the Science Museum, in central London, which aims to make sense of brain science, genetics and human behaviour.

Visitors will be offered an insight into lying and how telling lies might be detected.

Here are the ''top 10'' lies men and women tell their partners:

:: Men

1. I didn't have that much to drink

2. Nothing's wrong, I'm fine

3. I had no signal

4. It wasn't that expensive

5. I'm on my way

6. I'm stuck in traffic

7. No, your bum doesn't look big in that

8. Sorry, I missed your call

9. You've lost weight

10. It's just what I've always wanted

:: Women

1. Nothing's wrong, I'm fine

2. I don't know where it is, I haven't touched it

3. It wasn't that expensive

4. I didn't have that much to drink

5. I've got a headache

6. It was in the sale

7. I'm on my way

8. Oh, I've had this ages

9. No, I didn't throw it away

10. It's just what I've always wanted

READ MORE - Survey finds men lie more than women

Chloroplasts, The main secret of Plant's power

Chloroplasts are one of the cellular organelles, and the site of photosynthesis, a basic metabolism in plants. the structure of chloroplasts is shown in image above. Chloroplasts posses an inner system of membranes, called thylakoids, which are surrounded by fluid compartments called stroma. Thylakoids contain chlorophyll where the light reaction occurs. In stroma, carbon reduction is carried out through the dark reaction. In the light reaction, ATP, chemical energy, and NADPH, reduction power, are synthesized using light energy. The ATP and NADPH generated by the light reaction system are transported to the dark reaction system, where carbon dioxide is fixed and carbohydrates are synthesized by the Calvin cycle. Some plants concentrate carbon dioxide into organic acids before the Calvin cycle.

In chloroplast there are independent genes. These are some of the extranuclear genes. Some chloroplasts proteins are synthesized in chloroplasts. The complete chloroplast genomes of several plants have been sequenced. Chloroplasts reproduce by division rather than synthesis and are divided between the two daughter-cells during cell division. However, at the time of sexual reproduction, chloroplast genes are transferred only through the maternal gamete in most cases. For this reason characters based on differences in chloroplast genes do not follow the Mendelian pattern of inheritance. Chloroplast DNA also contains introns, i. e. base sequences that do not code for protein. When proteins are synthesized, the mRNA is processed to remove the introns at first, and then the base sequences that code for protein are connected. This process is called splicing.
READ MORE - Chloroplasts, The main secret of Plant's power

Eating fast food frequently would make people lose patience

Researchers from University of Toronto recruited 57 college students for volunteers, they were asked to see six common signs of fast food restaurants on the screen such as the McDonald's, Burger King, KFC, Subway, Taco Bell and Wendy. Researchers believed that even the volunteer did not need to instantly identify the names of these restaurants, but they should be affected subconsciously. The researchers found that after watching the signs, the speed of reading the articles significantly faster. In addition, they tend to choose products that can save time such as triple skin care products, rather than a set of bottles and jars. The researchers also gave a multiple-choice question for volunteers: are you willing to get a small amount of money immediately or wait a week to get more money? The responses of volunteers proved once again their guess: most people like to choose immediate interest.

Daily Mail have quoted the words of the researchers that people now lived in the environment filled with fast food, which would affect the subconscious mind and make people rush. They concluded: "The results show that fast food contains the unconscious goal of saving time, which often makes people lose patience mentality. The mind full of fast food can make people increase preferences awareness of saving time product, more surprising, we found that only the signs of fast-food restaurants contain the aspirations of saving, so they want immediate interests rather than on long-term gains, which would cause them economic damage." Researchers Sanford Des from University of Toronto said: "You will often see fast-food ads periodically exposed every day, which will generate long-term impact on you. When I sat in a fast food shop, I found even if nothing else to do, I will still swallow Hamburg at hand with incredible speed."

Another researcher said the fast food represents a saving-time culture and immediate satisfaction. The question is, whether the time is a problem, people will be active by time saving goal under exposure to the fast food environment. A friend called Bob leaved a message on the Daily Mail website that every time I queue up to buy hamburger, I'm always impatient.

About the Author
Copyright by Tony Eva
READ MORE - Eating fast food frequently would make people lose patience

Wind Power Potential Higher Than Current Estimates

Global wind energy potential is considerably above previous estimates by both wind industry groups and government departments, as outlined by a Harvard University study published a week ago inside the Proceedings on the National Academy of Sciences of the usa.

The newest research surfaced just weeks after T. Boone Pickens, citing rising financing costs, scaled back his plans to the world's largest wind farm in west Texas.

Using data from many meteorological stations, the Harvard team estimated the globe wind power potential to become 40 times greater than total current power consumption. A previous study cited within the paper put that multiple at about 7 times.

Within the lower 48 states, the possibility from wind power is 16 times a lot more than total electricity demand in the usa, the study suggested - significantly more than a 2008 United states doe study that projected wind could supply a fifth of electricity near you by 2030.

While remote elements of Russia and Canada have the greatest theoretical potential, the Harvard study remarked that there are real gains to be made in high-emission nations, especially China, which includes been rapidly constructing coal plants. "Large-scale progression of wind power in China could permit an 18-fold increase in electricity supply relative to consumption reported for 2005," the Harvard study said.

The findings are "further validation of cures%u2019ve been saying - that the us is the Saudi Arabia of wind," said Michael Goggin, an electricity industry analyst to the American Wind Energy Association.

The authors based their calculations for the deployment of two.five* to three*fantastic wind turbines situated either in accessible rural areas which have been neither frozen nor forested, or relatively shallow offshore locations. Additionally they used a conservative 20 percent estimate for capacity factor, a way of measuring simply how much energy a given turbine actually produces.

In a good example of how renewable energy potential could be a moving target, Mr. Goggin explained the growth in the forecasts might be related to the increasingly common utilization of very large turbines that rise to almost 100 meters.

Wind speeds are greater at higher elevations. Previous wind studies were based on the deployment of 50- to 80-meter turbines.

"As turbines get taller," predicts Mr. Goggin, "we'll see far more capitalization of the resource."

By: Lincoln Zamora
READ MORE - Wind Power Potential Higher Than Current Estimates

Animal Development

A fertilized egg undergoes cleavage to become multicellular, during which differentiation takes place among cells and various tissues and organs are formed. This process is called embryonic development.

Concerning the mechanism of embryonic development, there were once two different ideas. One is called preformation, according to which the egg or sperm contains a completely formed miniature embryo that simply grows during its development. Another is called epigenesis, in which the form of the embryo emerges gradually from a relatively formless egg.

In 1881, the German embryologist Wilhelm Roux killed one of the blastomeres of frog embryo at the two-cell stage with a hot needle, and later obtained a half-embryo with one side of the body formed. As seed in this experiment, eggs in which the fate of parts of the embryo is already determined are called mosaic eggs. On the other hand, in 1891 another German embryologist, Hans Driesch, vertically split a sea urchin embryo at the eight-cell stage, which resulted in two normal larvae, as seen in this experiment, eggs in which parts of the embryo have the potential to form a complete individual are called regulative eggs.

At present, these two ideas are thought not to be incompatible. The difference between the two types of egg is attributable to differences in time when the fate of the part of the embryo is determined.
READ MORE - Animal Development

10 effective ways to prevent Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is one of the four deadliest cancer types in the world. if lung cancer frequently infects man, whereas breast cancer and womb neck (serviks) most often attacks women. Cervical cancer is a cancer that occurs in the uterine cervix, an area in the female reproductive organ which is the entrance to the uterus located between the womb (uterus) with a hole in intercourse (vaginal). there are 10 effective ways to prevent cervical cancer, such as:

HPV Vaccination
This way is absolutely effective, because scientist found that cervical cancer is caused by Human Pavilloma Virus. There are no special requirements for administration of the vaccine, but it is more recommended in virgin women.

Conduct Early Detection
Don't let virus HPV penetrate your body, immediately conduct early detection after married.

Keep Your Vagina Health
Wash vagina cleanly so that viruses and germs can not go into it.

Don't Use Vagina Antiseptic
In vagina, there is bacterium that can produce acid. The bacterium kill bad germs exist in vagina. If women uses antiseptic frequently, then germ that produce acid will be death.

Use contraception device
Sexual disease happens because of sexual intercourse without protection. It also produces white substance in smelly vagina.

Don't Use Pantyliner To Much
Woman that excessively use pantyliner will make her vagina damp. So use pantyliner no to much.

Wear off Underwear when Sleeping
When we are sleeping, germs can easily penetrate our body.

Avoid eating the fruit which increases mucus production
These fruits are pineapple, cabbage, cucumber,etc, but consume Morinda citrifolia fruits because its nutrient proved able to prevent and stop cancer cell tissue.

Don't touch vagina with dirty fingernails
Dirty fingernails can contribute many of germs effectively.

Conduct Regular Checks of The Vagina
The regular checkups are intended to prevent the growth of cancer without known
READ MORE - 10 effective ways to prevent Cervical Cancer

The process of plant evolution

It is said that plants appeared on the earth during the time between the Ordovician period and the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era, some four hundred million years ago. The first plants that appeared on land may have been Pteridopytes or Bryophytes, and it is Pteridopytes that had become large-sized on land and markedly expanded their habitat by Carboniferous period of the Paleozoic era. Although unlike plants living in water, Pteridopytes cannot absorb water and nutrients from the whole plant body, they developed the tube system called vascular bundles, which enabled the plants to absorb water and nutrients at one part of the plant body and transport them to the other parts. In addition, after developing stomata on the surface of leaves, they are able to prevent water loss and lower the leaf temperature by opening and closing stomata. Thanks to these changes Pteridopytes adapted themselves to dry land conditions to some extent. Pteridopytes, however, need external water at the time of reproduction and their habitats were limited to areas not too dry, such as river coasts.

It is Spermatophytes that have evolved from Pteridopytes. Spermatophytes can tolerate dry conditions more pronouncedly. Because Spermatophytes do not need external water at the time of reproduction, they were suitable to life under dry inland conditions. Spermatophytes developed cuticle layers on the surface of the whole plant body, which effectively prevent water loss from the surface of the plant body, Spermatophytes include Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, and in the flower former ovules are exposed, whereas in the flower of the latter ovules are covered by ovaries. Gymnosperms appeared in the late Devonian period of the Paleozoic era and prospered during the time from the Carboniferous period to the Permian period. Angiosperms appeared during the time from the Jurassic period to the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic era, and diversified during the period from then to the Cenozoic era. Angiosperms further differentiated into Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons.

At end of the process of plant evolution, crops appeared after the appearance of human beings, very recently in the history of the earth. Crops may have evolved from ancestral wild plant species by artificial selection. They can be distinguished from wild plants by many characteristics. One of them is the non-dormant characteristics of the seeds, by which crops germinate uniformly when planted. Crops do not contain toxic substances n store organs like fruits. The seeds or fruits of wild plants generally are detached from the plant body when mature, whereas the seed or fruits of crops are not and efficient harvest is possible. In crops, harvested organs, such as the grains of cereal crops, the fruits or fruit vegetables and the corms or tuberous roots in root crops, are enlarged abnormally.
READ MORE - The process of plant evolution

The fights of hermit crabs for snail shells

Coastal hermit crabs live in snail shells. As snail shells are not part of the hermit crab's body, they do not grow following the growth of the hermit crab inside. Hermit crabs should obtain appropriate-size shells as they grow. The optimal shell size decreases as the size of the hermit crab decreases. For example, the optimal-size shell for a crab of 5 mm in carapace length is 14 mm in shell width. Shells deviating from this size are unsuitable for this crab. Larger shells are heavy and difficult to carry, and in smaller shells crabs cannot completely conceal the body.

A hermit crab sometimes attacks another crab to obtain a new shell. In this attempt, an attacker crab that succeeds in evicting the other should discard its original shell and move into the newly obtained shell. As a result, the attacked crab moves into the shell discarded by the attacker crab. Thus, fights by hermit crabs for shells assume a form of exchange. When a crab obtains a new shell whose size is nearer to the optimal value than the original, the crab can be regarded as gaining, but when the new one further deviates from the optimal than the original, it can be regarded as losing.
READ MORE - The fights of hermit crabs for snail shells

Characteristic response of plant when submerged

Plants show characteristic responses to submergence. When plants and soil are submerged by water, the air in the gaseous space in the soil is quickly replaced with water. Plant roots generally obtain oxygen from the gaseous space in the soil. Thus, when this space is filled with water, plant roots rapidly fall into oxygen deficiency, leading to the retardation of the absorption of water and nutrients, which then adversely affects the growth and development of the aboveground parts. Characteristic responses of plants when submerged are leaf epinasty (increased growth on the upper surface of a leaf, causing it to bend downward), thickening of the stem base and the development of adventitious roots. Although the ecological significance of leaf epinasty is not well known, thickening of the stem base and the development roots are considered to be adaptive responses of plants to water submergence. The thickening of the stem base is caused by the development of aerenchyma (air spaces in plants) in the stem, which helps the transport of oxygen from aboveground to underground parts. Adventitious roots play the role of dead or lowfunctioning roots damaged by water submergence. Hygrophytes are plants adapted to marshland, which is generally submerged in water. Most of them develop aerenchyma in the stem, which enables the efficient transport of air from aboveground to underground parts, in order to adapt their roots to anaerobic conditions.

Salt accumulation in the soil (soil salinity) adversely affects plants. Various salts accumulate in the soil and the most problematic ones are chlorine and sodium ions. For animals, both chlorine and sodium are indispensable for their lives, but for plants they are not prerequisite and over-absorption often induce toxic effects of these ions are one of the causes of plant damage by soil salinity. Halophytes, which are adapted to saline soils in the coast or dry area, can protect themselves from the toxic effects of chlorine and sodium ions absorbed in their bodies. The other cause of plant damage by soil salinity is the blockage of water absorption. When salts are accumulated in the soil, the water absorption of roots is retarded, even though sufficient water is in the soil.
READ MORE - Characteristic response of plant when submerged

Muscle contraction in vertebrates

Movements of vertebrates are caused by contraction of skeletal muscles that are attached to the bone by bands of fibrous connective tissue called tendons. A skeletal muscle microscopically shows a specific pattern, and thus, is also called striated muscle. A skeletal muscle is a bundle of long fibers running the length of the muscle. Each fiber is a single cell, and is itself a bundle of smaller myofibrils arranged longitudinally. The myofibrils, in turn, are composed of two kinds of filaments ; thin or actin filaments and thick or myosin filaments. According to the sliding filaments model, neither the thin filaments nor the thick filaments change in length when the muscle contracts ; rather, the filaments move each other longitudinally, so that the degree of overlap of the thin and thick filaments increase.

Contraction of muscle requires energy which is supplied by the breakdown of ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate. Anaerobic creatine phosphate breakdown and fermentation quickly generate ATP, and sustained exercise requires aerobic respiration.

Stimulation of a single muscle fiber by a motor neuron results in a all-or-none contraction, a twitch. If a second action potential is triggered before the response to the first is over, then the tension will sum to produce a greater response. And if the rate of stimulation is fast enough, then twitchs blur into smooth and sustained contraction called tetanus.

READ MORE - Muscle contraction in vertebrates

Factors that inhibit learning

There are many factors that inhibit learning they are:
1. When students are given sufficient time but can not use that time well then he will have problems in learning.
2. Classical teaching is done less attention to individual differences of students, because of the large number of people (students) are obliged to follow the lessons in this beloved country of Indonesia. In Indonesia, this is not possible be fulfilled because of limited facilities required and other limitations.
3. The weakness is the lack of teaching efforts of teachers to give attention to this individual are different, so it is always a lot of number of students - students who do not achieve full mastery. When the instruction given by teachers without a purpose and everything is based on rote without understanding just outside the head that would benefit the child, it can result in the spirit of learning children will become weak.
4. A stern teacher so that students become tense or frightened and can be fatal for the development of students' souls. Ensures students can not learn well.
5. Schools were also too much emphasize order and success is not reasonable (and even smells of intimidation to students), which can cause barriers to learning.
6. Lack of learning tools, inadequate laboratories, the less comfortable classes, lessons less supportive.
7. Teaching materials that do not fit with the abilities of students can hinder learning, meaning learning materials that are too difficult, and vice versa teaching materials that are too easy. Teaching materials that are too difficult can inhibit the ability of understanding or the assignment of lessons. Material that is too easy to slide less attractive and tend to result in underestimated students, who eventually not controlled.
8. Lack of parental control, may cause the failure of student learning, because even though most students already have the desire to stand on their own lack of oversight could lead to a tendency does not mean that inhibit or suppress, but the push towards self-awareness.
9. Community environment may be inhibiting student learning, when students in the community less willing to associate control interaction (not able to select and sort them).
10. Students may also use his time for many things - things are not important, such as recreation that is not too often, have no friends to learn together, students do not / have less interest, but their interest is a statement of a person happy or unhappy about something.
READ MORE - Factors that inhibit learning

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