How to Become A Scientist

A scientist play big role in development of human life.  All we know and we use now is result of drudge works of scientist in the past. Therefore, to become a scientist, you must work hard and never give up until you reach your destination.

A Scientist begins an investigation by observing an object or an activity. Observation typically involves one or more of the human senses –hearing, sight, smell, taste, and touch. Scientists typically use tool to aid in their observation. For example, a microscope helps view away to be seen by the unaided eye.

Scientists typically apply their observation skills to an experiment. An experiment is any change the conditions under which events occur. It can be something extremely simple, such as heating a solid to see when it melts, of something highly complex, such as bouncing a radio signal off the surface of a distant planet. Scientists typically repeat experiments, sometimes many times, in order to be sure that the results were not affected by unforeseen factors.

Most experiments involve real objects in the physical world, such as electric circuits, chemical compounds, or living organisms. However, with the rapid progress in electronics, computer simulations can now carry out some experiments instead. If they are carefully constructed, these simulations or models can accurately predict how real objects will behave.
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Scary Video, Natives thought that is a sea monster

in video above, some creatures eat the fish carcasses wildly in a few second. The remain is just a fish bone. It makes many natives scary. After reaserch, the reasercher have proved that creatures are not dangerous for human. evidently, that creatures is cirolana (latin name). In the reaserch, about 500 cirolanas are placed in an aquarium. then, someone sink his finger to that place. but, the result is cirolanas become scared, even they feigned death.
Cirolanas have a big role in food chain. They are eated by bigger fish in the sea. after the reaserch put a fish in the same aquarium, they are eaten by that fish.
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Green Jobs Mean Green Money and a Green Earth

The new buzzword in the economy is green jobs.  The Obama administration envisions green collar jobs to boost the lagging economy.  The industrial leaders of the renewable energy sector promote green collar jobs as the way towards increasing public awareness of the need for environmental protection while increasing the prospects for their bottom line. The environmentalists want green collar jobs to be more pervasive for the sake of Mother Earth.

Green Money
The better news for the Joes and Janes on the street is that green collar jobs mean green dollars on their pockets.  Pundits estimate that as many as 185,000 jobs can be generated by the end of 2010 and that figure is for the wind sector alone!

In the solar energy sector, the numbers are more impressive with 7 million jobs created by the year 2030.  Of course, it may seem way off into the future but that future starts its roll today.  Thus, professionals and skilled workers are advised to hone their skills for green jobs as early as possible.

Efforts along this line will be well rewarded. Many online pay scale sites have discovered in surveys that solar and wind energy workers earn more than their counterparts with similar skills in other industries.  Even entry level green energy  jobs like solar power installer and wind turbine fabricator can earn at least $36,100 per year, depending on the skills, expertise and experience of the individual as well as the location of the projects.

Another good thing about green jobs aside from the better pay is the upward mobility possible.  Workers can move up the ranks with experience, seniority and advanced training depending on company policy.

Of course, higher education in colleges as well as professional licenses matter with green energy  jobs but not as much as one expected them to since even high school graduates can enter the workforce.  More often than not, one should have transferable skills that can be repurposed as well as the right training for the solar and wind energy sectors.

Green Earth
Green collar jobs also benefit the Earth as well as the pockets of its human inhabitants.  Keep in mind that the definition of green collar jobs almost always center on the positive impact, either direct or indirect, of the activities involved on the Earth itself.

Thus, you will read of definitions whereby green collar jobs should generate and use renewable energy, conserve natural resources, minimize waste and use of hazardous materials, promote biodiversity and a healthy ecosystem and lessen greenhouse gas emissions, to name a few goals. Indeed, green jobs are green precisely because these make for a greener Earth in more ways than one.

However, it cannot be overemphasized that gaining employable access to the green sector is not as easy as it seems.  Of course, one can always directly apply to companies dealing in renewable energy particularly solar and wind power, which are the largest and fastest-growing niches in the industry, but it is always better to have previous training.

Thus, we strongly suggest going back to school for training in either niches.  You will only spend a few months or years earning your certification and/or associate's degree but the rewards will be for the long-term.  This way, green jobs are yours for the taking, thanks to your educational advantage.

by Rose
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Survey finds men lie more than women

We are all bound to lie every once in a while, but new UK research has found that men lie more than women and are less likely to suffer a guilty conscience.

The survey, commissioned by London's Science MuseumThe average male tells 1,092 lies every year and is less likely to suffer a guilty conscience for lying than the typical woman.

By contrast, the average woman will come out with 728 untruths per year.

And while men said their lies were most likely to relate to their drinking habits, the most popular female falsehood is: ''Nothing's wrong, I'm fine''.

According to the findings, people are most likely to spin a yarn to their mothers with 25 per cent of men and 20 per cent of women admitting to this.

By comparison, only 10 per cent of respondents said they were likely to deceive their partners.

But while 82 per cent of females questioned said telling a lie ate away at their conscience, only 70 per cent of men confessed to pangs of guilt.

Some 75 per cent of people polled agreed it was ''ok'' to fib to save someone's feelings.

''Lying may seem to be an unavoidable part of human nature but it's an important part of social interaction,'' said Katie Maggs, associate medical curator at the Science Museum, which commissioned the study.

''The jury is still out as to whether human quirks like lying are the result of our genes, evolution or our upbringing.''

The study showed almost one fifth of people believe lie detection is acceptable to use in everyday life, with more than one in 10 saying it was acceptable in the workplace.

Meanwhile, three-quarters of people felt the process was ''fine to use'' in criminal cases.

Ms Maggs added: ''Only a few people appear to accurately detect when someone is lying, but high-tech developers today are working on creating more accurate technology.

''Whether we will soon be using accurate lie detectors in the home or at work is hard to say, but it won't be long before this technology is readily available.''

Market researchers OnePoll spoke to 3,000 adults for the survey.

The poll has been released ahead of the launch of the revamped Who am I? gallery at the Science Museum, in central London, which aims to make sense of brain science, genetics and human behaviour.

Visitors will be offered an insight into lying and how telling lies might be detected.

Here are the ''top 10'' lies men and women tell their partners:

:: Men

1. I didn't have that much to drink

2. Nothing's wrong, I'm fine

3. I had no signal

4. It wasn't that expensive

5. I'm on my way

6. I'm stuck in traffic

7. No, your bum doesn't look big in that

8. Sorry, I missed your call

9. You've lost weight

10. It's just what I've always wanted

:: Women

1. Nothing's wrong, I'm fine

2. I don't know where it is, I haven't touched it

3. It wasn't that expensive

4. I didn't have that much to drink

5. I've got a headache

6. It was in the sale

7. I'm on my way

8. Oh, I've had this ages

9. No, I didn't throw it away

10. It's just what I've always wanted

READ MORE - Survey finds men lie more than women

Chloroplasts, The main secret of Plant's power

Chloroplasts are one of the cellular organelles, and the site of photosynthesis, a basic metabolism in plants. the structure of chloroplasts is shown in image above. Chloroplasts posses an inner system of membranes, called thylakoids, which are surrounded by fluid compartments called stroma. Thylakoids contain chlorophyll where the light reaction occurs. In stroma, carbon reduction is carried out through the dark reaction. In the light reaction, ATP, chemical energy, and NADPH, reduction power, are synthesized using light energy. The ATP and NADPH generated by the light reaction system are transported to the dark reaction system, where carbon dioxide is fixed and carbohydrates are synthesized by the Calvin cycle. Some plants concentrate carbon dioxide into organic acids before the Calvin cycle.

In chloroplast there are independent genes. These are some of the extranuclear genes. Some chloroplasts proteins are synthesized in chloroplasts. The complete chloroplast genomes of several plants have been sequenced. Chloroplasts reproduce by division rather than synthesis and are divided between the two daughter-cells during cell division. However, at the time of sexual reproduction, chloroplast genes are transferred only through the maternal gamete in most cases. For this reason characters based on differences in chloroplast genes do not follow the Mendelian pattern of inheritance. Chloroplast DNA also contains introns, i. e. base sequences that do not code for protein. When proteins are synthesized, the mRNA is processed to remove the introns at first, and then the base sequences that code for protein are connected. This process is called splicing.
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Eating fast food frequently would make people lose patience

Researchers from University of Toronto recruited 57 college students for volunteers, they were asked to see six common signs of fast food restaurants on the screen such as the McDonald's, Burger King, KFC, Subway, Taco Bell and Wendy. Researchers believed that even the volunteer did not need to instantly identify the names of these restaurants, but they should be affected subconsciously. The researchers found that after watching the signs, the speed of reading the articles significantly faster. In addition, they tend to choose products that can save time such as triple skin care products, rather than a set of bottles and jars. The researchers also gave a multiple-choice question for volunteers: are you willing to get a small amount of money immediately or wait a week to get more money? The responses of volunteers proved once again their guess: most people like to choose immediate interest.

Daily Mail have quoted the words of the researchers that people now lived in the environment filled with fast food, which would affect the subconscious mind and make people rush. They concluded: "The results show that fast food contains the unconscious goal of saving time, which often makes people lose patience mentality. The mind full of fast food can make people increase preferences awareness of saving time product, more surprising, we found that only the signs of fast-food restaurants contain the aspirations of saving, so they want immediate interests rather than on long-term gains, which would cause them economic damage." Researchers Sanford Des from University of Toronto said: "You will often see fast-food ads periodically exposed every day, which will generate long-term impact on you. When I sat in a fast food shop, I found even if nothing else to do, I will still swallow Hamburg at hand with incredible speed."

Another researcher said the fast food represents a saving-time culture and immediate satisfaction. The question is, whether the time is a problem, people will be active by time saving goal under exposure to the fast food environment. A friend called Bob leaved a message on the Daily Mail website that every time I queue up to buy hamburger, I'm always impatient.

About the Author
Copyright by Tony Eva
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Wind Power Potential Higher Than Current Estimates

Global wind energy potential is considerably above previous estimates by both wind industry groups and government departments, as outlined by a Harvard University study published a week ago inside the Proceedings on the National Academy of Sciences of the usa.

The newest research surfaced just weeks after T. Boone Pickens, citing rising financing costs, scaled back his plans to the world's largest wind farm in west Texas.

Using data from many meteorological stations, the Harvard team estimated the globe wind power potential to become 40 times greater than total current power consumption. A previous study cited within the paper put that multiple at about 7 times.

Within the lower 48 states, the possibility from wind power is 16 times a lot more than total electricity demand in the usa, the study suggested - significantly more than a 2008 United states doe study that projected wind could supply a fifth of electricity near you by 2030.

While remote elements of Russia and Canada have the greatest theoretical potential, the Harvard study remarked that there are real gains to be made in high-emission nations, especially China, which includes been rapidly constructing coal plants. "Large-scale progression of wind power in China could permit an 18-fold increase in electricity supply relative to consumption reported for 2005," the Harvard study said.

The findings are "further validation of cures%u2019ve been saying - that the us is the Saudi Arabia of wind," said Michael Goggin, an electricity industry analyst to the American Wind Energy Association.

The authors based their calculations for the deployment of two.five* to three*fantastic wind turbines situated either in accessible rural areas which have been neither frozen nor forested, or relatively shallow offshore locations. Additionally they used a conservative 20 percent estimate for capacity factor, a way of measuring simply how much energy a given turbine actually produces.

In a good example of how renewable energy potential could be a moving target, Mr. Goggin explained the growth in the forecasts might be related to the increasingly common utilization of very large turbines that rise to almost 100 meters.

Wind speeds are greater at higher elevations. Previous wind studies were based on the deployment of 50- to 80-meter turbines.

"As turbines get taller," predicts Mr. Goggin, "we'll see far more capitalization of the resource."

By: Lincoln Zamora
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Animal Development

A fertilized egg undergoes cleavage to become multicellular, during which differentiation takes place among cells and various tissues and organs are formed. This process is called embryonic development.

Concerning the mechanism of embryonic development, there were once two different ideas. One is called preformation, according to which the egg or sperm contains a completely formed miniature embryo that simply grows during its development. Another is called epigenesis, in which the form of the embryo emerges gradually from a relatively formless egg.

In 1881, the German embryologist Wilhelm Roux killed one of the blastomeres of frog embryo at the two-cell stage with a hot needle, and later obtained a half-embryo with one side of the body formed. As seed in this experiment, eggs in which the fate of parts of the embryo is already determined are called mosaic eggs. On the other hand, in 1891 another German embryologist, Hans Driesch, vertically split a sea urchin embryo at the eight-cell stage, which resulted in two normal larvae, as seen in this experiment, eggs in which parts of the embryo have the potential to form a complete individual are called regulative eggs.

At present, these two ideas are thought not to be incompatible. The difference between the two types of egg is attributable to differences in time when the fate of the part of the embryo is determined.
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10 effective ways to prevent Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is one of the four deadliest cancer types in the world. if lung cancer frequently infects man, whereas breast cancer and womb neck (serviks) most often attacks women. Cervical cancer is a cancer that occurs in the uterine cervix, an area in the female reproductive organ which is the entrance to the uterus located between the womb (uterus) with a hole in intercourse (vaginal). there are 10 effective ways to prevent cervical cancer, such as:

HPV Vaccination
This way is absolutely effective, because scientist found that cervical cancer is caused by Human Pavilloma Virus. There are no special requirements for administration of the vaccine, but it is more recommended in virgin women.

Conduct Early Detection
Don't let virus HPV penetrate your body, immediately conduct early detection after married.

Keep Your Vagina Health
Wash vagina cleanly so that viruses and germs can not go into it.

Don't Use Vagina Antiseptic
In vagina, there is bacterium that can produce acid. The bacterium kill bad germs exist in vagina. If women uses antiseptic frequently, then germ that produce acid will be death.

Use contraception device
Sexual disease happens because of sexual intercourse without protection. It also produces white substance in smelly vagina.

Don't Use Pantyliner To Much
Woman that excessively use pantyliner will make her vagina damp. So use pantyliner no to much.

Wear off Underwear when Sleeping
When we are sleeping, germs can easily penetrate our body.

Avoid eating the fruit which increases mucus production
These fruits are pineapple, cabbage, cucumber,etc, but consume Morinda citrifolia fruits because its nutrient proved able to prevent and stop cancer cell tissue.

Don't touch vagina with dirty fingernails
Dirty fingernails can contribute many of germs effectively.

Conduct Regular Checks of The Vagina
The regular checkups are intended to prevent the growth of cancer without known
READ MORE - 10 effective ways to prevent Cervical Cancer

The process of plant evolution

It is said that plants appeared on the earth during the time between the Ordovician period and the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era, some four hundred million years ago. The first plants that appeared on land may have been Pteridopytes or Bryophytes, and it is Pteridopytes that had become large-sized on land and markedly expanded their habitat by Carboniferous period of the Paleozoic era. Although unlike plants living in water, Pteridopytes cannot absorb water and nutrients from the whole plant body, they developed the tube system called vascular bundles, which enabled the plants to absorb water and nutrients at one part of the plant body and transport them to the other parts. In addition, after developing stomata on the surface of leaves, they are able to prevent water loss and lower the leaf temperature by opening and closing stomata. Thanks to these changes Pteridopytes adapted themselves to dry land conditions to some extent. Pteridopytes, however, need external water at the time of reproduction and their habitats were limited to areas not too dry, such as river coasts.

It is Spermatophytes that have evolved from Pteridopytes. Spermatophytes can tolerate dry conditions more pronouncedly. Because Spermatophytes do not need external water at the time of reproduction, they were suitable to life under dry inland conditions. Spermatophytes developed cuticle layers on the surface of the whole plant body, which effectively prevent water loss from the surface of the plant body, Spermatophytes include Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, and in the flower former ovules are exposed, whereas in the flower of the latter ovules are covered by ovaries. Gymnosperms appeared in the late Devonian period of the Paleozoic era and prospered during the time from the Carboniferous period to the Permian period. Angiosperms appeared during the time from the Jurassic period to the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic era, and diversified during the period from then to the Cenozoic era. Angiosperms further differentiated into Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons.

At end of the process of plant evolution, crops appeared after the appearance of human beings, very recently in the history of the earth. Crops may have evolved from ancestral wild plant species by artificial selection. They can be distinguished from wild plants by many characteristics. One of them is the non-dormant characteristics of the seeds, by which crops germinate uniformly when planted. Crops do not contain toxic substances n store organs like fruits. The seeds or fruits of wild plants generally are detached from the plant body when mature, whereas the seed or fruits of crops are not and efficient harvest is possible. In crops, harvested organs, such as the grains of cereal crops, the fruits or fruit vegetables and the corms or tuberous roots in root crops, are enlarged abnormally.
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The fights of hermit crabs for snail shells

Coastal hermit crabs live in snail shells. As snail shells are not part of the hermit crab's body, they do not grow following the growth of the hermit crab inside. Hermit crabs should obtain appropriate-size shells as they grow. The optimal shell size decreases as the size of the hermit crab decreases. For example, the optimal-size shell for a crab of 5 mm in carapace length is 14 mm in shell width. Shells deviating from this size are unsuitable for this crab. Larger shells are heavy and difficult to carry, and in smaller shells crabs cannot completely conceal the body.

A hermit crab sometimes attacks another crab to obtain a new shell. In this attempt, an attacker crab that succeeds in evicting the other should discard its original shell and move into the newly obtained shell. As a result, the attacked crab moves into the shell discarded by the attacker crab. Thus, fights by hermit crabs for shells assume a form of exchange. When a crab obtains a new shell whose size is nearer to the optimal value than the original, the crab can be regarded as gaining, but when the new one further deviates from the optimal than the original, it can be regarded as losing.
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Characteristic response of plant when submerged

Plants show characteristic responses to submergence. When plants and soil are submerged by water, the air in the gaseous space in the soil is quickly replaced with water. Plant roots generally obtain oxygen from the gaseous space in the soil. Thus, when this space is filled with water, plant roots rapidly fall into oxygen deficiency, leading to the retardation of the absorption of water and nutrients, which then adversely affects the growth and development of the aboveground parts. Characteristic responses of plants when submerged are leaf epinasty (increased growth on the upper surface of a leaf, causing it to bend downward), thickening of the stem base and the development of adventitious roots. Although the ecological significance of leaf epinasty is not well known, thickening of the stem base and the development roots are considered to be adaptive responses of plants to water submergence. The thickening of the stem base is caused by the development of aerenchyma (air spaces in plants) in the stem, which helps the transport of oxygen from aboveground to underground parts. Adventitious roots play the role of dead or lowfunctioning roots damaged by water submergence. Hygrophytes are plants adapted to marshland, which is generally submerged in water. Most of them develop aerenchyma in the stem, which enables the efficient transport of air from aboveground to underground parts, in order to adapt their roots to anaerobic conditions.

Salt accumulation in the soil (soil salinity) adversely affects plants. Various salts accumulate in the soil and the most problematic ones are chlorine and sodium ions. For animals, both chlorine and sodium are indispensable for their lives, but for plants they are not prerequisite and over-absorption often induce toxic effects of these ions are one of the causes of plant damage by soil salinity. Halophytes, which are adapted to saline soils in the coast or dry area, can protect themselves from the toxic effects of chlorine and sodium ions absorbed in their bodies. The other cause of plant damage by soil salinity is the blockage of water absorption. When salts are accumulated in the soil, the water absorption of roots is retarded, even though sufficient water is in the soil.
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Muscle contraction in vertebrates

Movements of vertebrates are caused by contraction of skeletal muscles that are attached to the bone by bands of fibrous connective tissue called tendons. A skeletal muscle microscopically shows a specific pattern, and thus, is also called striated muscle. A skeletal muscle is a bundle of long fibers running the length of the muscle. Each fiber is a single cell, and is itself a bundle of smaller myofibrils arranged longitudinally. The myofibrils, in turn, are composed of two kinds of filaments ; thin or actin filaments and thick or myosin filaments. According to the sliding filaments model, neither the thin filaments nor the thick filaments change in length when the muscle contracts ; rather, the filaments move each other longitudinally, so that the degree of overlap of the thin and thick filaments increase.

Contraction of muscle requires energy which is supplied by the breakdown of ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate. Anaerobic creatine phosphate breakdown and fermentation quickly generate ATP, and sustained exercise requires aerobic respiration.

Stimulation of a single muscle fiber by a motor neuron results in a all-or-none contraction, a twitch. If a second action potential is triggered before the response to the first is over, then the tension will sum to produce a greater response. And if the rate of stimulation is fast enough, then twitchs blur into smooth and sustained contraction called tetanus.

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Factors that inhibit learning

There are many factors that inhibit learning they are:
1. When students are given sufficient time but can not use that time well then he will have problems in learning.
2. Classical teaching is done less attention to individual differences of students, because of the large number of people (students) are obliged to follow the lessons in this beloved country of Indonesia. In Indonesia, this is not possible be fulfilled because of limited facilities required and other limitations.
3. The weakness is the lack of teaching efforts of teachers to give attention to this individual are different, so it is always a lot of number of students - students who do not achieve full mastery. When the instruction given by teachers without a purpose and everything is based on rote without understanding just outside the head that would benefit the child, it can result in the spirit of learning children will become weak.
4. A stern teacher so that students become tense or frightened and can be fatal for the development of students' souls. Ensures students can not learn well.
5. Schools were also too much emphasize order and success is not reasonable (and even smells of intimidation to students), which can cause barriers to learning.
6. Lack of learning tools, inadequate laboratories, the less comfortable classes, lessons less supportive.
7. Teaching materials that do not fit with the abilities of students can hinder learning, meaning learning materials that are too difficult, and vice versa teaching materials that are too easy. Teaching materials that are too difficult can inhibit the ability of understanding or the assignment of lessons. Material that is too easy to slide less attractive and tend to result in underestimated students, who eventually not controlled.
8. Lack of parental control, may cause the failure of student learning, because even though most students already have the desire to stand on their own lack of oversight could lead to a tendency does not mean that inhibit or suppress, but the push towards self-awareness.
9. Community environment may be inhibiting student learning, when students in the community less willing to associate control interaction (not able to select and sort them).
10. Students may also use his time for many things - things are not important, such as recreation that is not too often, have no friends to learn together, students do not / have less interest, but their interest is a statement of a person happy or unhappy about something.
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Definition of learning

Learning is a process within the human personality, the changes are placed in the form of increased quality and quantity.
Definition of learning according to Hilhard Bower in the book Theories of Learning (1975) Learning associated with changes in a person's behavior to something situation caused by repeated experiences in that situation, where changes in behavior can not be explained or basic innate response tendencies, maturation.
According to Gagne in the book The Condition of Learning (1977) Learning occurs when something together with the content of the stimulus situation affects the students' memories so that his actions (his performance) before he changed from time to time through situation after situation he had experienced earlier.
Meanwhile, Morgan provides a definition of learning is a relatively settled Any change in behavior that occur as a result of training or experience.
Wetherington believes learning is a change in personality self-described as a new pattern of reactions in the form of skills, attitudes, habits, intelligence or an understanding.
Ngalim Purwanto, MP provides for the definition study of several elements:
a. Learning is a change in behavior in which the changes that can lead to better behavior, but it is likely to lead to more bad behavior.
b. Learning is a change that occurs through training or experience in the sense of the changes caused by growth or as a result of learning dianggab not like the changes that happen to a baby.
c. Learning is a relatively steady change, should be the end of a long enough period of time.
d. Learning is a change in behavior related to various aspects of personality, both physically and psychologically as: a change in understanding, solving a problem, thinking, skills, abilities, habits and attitudes.
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