Assessment of Learning Outcomes

A. Understanding Evaluation, Measurement, Test and Assessment

Many people mix up the notion of evaluation, measurement , test and assessment, whereas the fourth has a different understanding. Evaluation is identifying activities to see if a program has been planned have been achieved or not, valuable or not, and also to see the level of efficiency in implementation. Evaluation of decisions related to value (value judgment). Stufflebeam (Abin Makmun Shamsuddin, 1996) memengemukakan that: educational evaluation is the process of delineating, obtaining, and Providing useful, information for judging decision alternatives. Stufflebeam of view, we can see that the essence of the evaluation of the interests of providing information for decision making. In education, we can carry out evaluation of the new curriculum, an education policy, specific learning resources, or work ethics of teachers.

Measurement is the process of granting or business figures obtained from a numerical description of the extent to which learners have achieved a certain characteristic.

Assessment is implementing a variety of ways and using various assessment tools to obtain information on the extent of learning outcomes or achievement for learners competence (range of ability) learners. Assessment to answer questions about how well the result or achievement of a participant didik.Hasil value assessment can be qualitative (narrative statement in words) and quantitative value (a number). Measurements associated with the process of finding or determination of the quantitative value.

The test is a way of assessment is designed and implemented to students at a particular time and place and under conditions that meet certain requirements are clear.

Specifically, in the context of learning in the classroom, assessment is conducted to determine the progress and results of study of students, diagnosing learning difficulties, provide feedback / improvement of teaching and learning process, and determining the increase of the classroom. Through the assessment can be obtained accurate information about the organization of teaching and learning success of students, teachers, and the learning process itself. Based on that information, we can make decisions about learning, learners difficulties and the effort necessary guidance and presence of itself kurikukulum.

B. Assessment objectives

Assessment has a very important purpose in learning, such as for grading, selection, knowing the level of mastery of competencies, counseling, diagnosis, and prediction.

1. For grading, the assessment is intended to define or distinguish the position of student work compared with other learners. This assessment will indicate the position of students in the sequence compared with other children. Therefore, the function of assessment for the grading tends to compare the child with other children so that more refer to the assessment of reference norm (norm-referenced assessment).
2. As a selection tool, intended for separate assessment of incoming students in a particular category and what does not. Learners are allowed to enter certain schools or who are not allowed. In this case, the assessment function to determine a person can enter or not a particular school.
3. To illustrate the extent to which a student has mastered the competencies.
4. As guidance, the assessment aims to evaluate the results of study of students in order to help learners understand themselves, make decisions about next steps, both to program selection, personality development and for the majors.
5. As a means of diagnosis, assessment of learning aims to show the difficulties experienced by learners and the possibility of achievement that can be developed. This will help teachers determine if someone needs remidiasi or enrichment.
6th. As a means of prediction, assessment aims to obtain information that can predict how the performance of students in the next education level or in suitable employment. Examples of this assessment is the scholastic aptitude tests or tests of academic potential.

From the sixth objective assessment, in order to see the level of mastery of competencies, mentoring, and diagnostics is a major role in the assessment.

In accordance with these objectives, the assessment requires teachers to directly or indirectly capable of carrying out the assessment in the overall learning process. To assess how far the students have mastered a variety of competencies, of course various types of assessment needs to be given in accordance with the competencies to be assessed, such as performance , assignment (project), works (products), a collection of students' work (portfolio) , and a written assessment (paper and pencil test). So the purpose of assessment is to provide feedback information about the results of comprehensive study of students, both viewed as the learning activities take place and when viewed from the end result, using various ways in accordance with the competency assessment that is expected to reach learners.

C. Assessment Approach

There are two approaches that can be used in assessment of learning outcomes, namely the assessment which refers to the norm (Norm Reference Assessment or norm-referenced assessment) and assessment criteria refer to (Reference Assessment Criteria or criterion referenced assessment). The second difference lies in the approach of the references used. In the assessment, which refers to the norms, interpretation of assessment results of students associated with the assessment of all students assessed with the same assessment tool. So the results of all students is used as a reference. Meanwhile, referring to the assessment criteria or standards, interpretation of the results of the assessment depends on whether or to what extent a learner to achieve or master the criteria or standards that have been determined. Criteria or benchmarks were formulated in the competencies or learning outcomes in competency-based curriculum.

In the implementation of competency-based curriculum, assessment approach used is based on the assessment criteria or a benchmark. In this case the learner achievement is determined by the criteria established for mastery of a competency. However, sometimes the norm reference assessment can be used for certain specific purposes in accordance with their uses, such as for selecting learners into study group and which, for grouping students in learning activities, and for selecting students who represent the school in inter-race school.

D. Scope of Learning Outcomes Assessment

Student learning outcomes can be classified into three domains, namely: (1) cognitive domain (knowledge or language that includes intelligence and wit logic - mathematics), (2) affective domain (attitudes and values or that include intelligence and interpersonal intrapersonal intelligence, in other words, emotional intelligence), and (3) psychomotor domain (skills or that include kinesthetic intelligence, visual-spatial intelligence and musical intelligence).

The extent to which each of these domains contribute to a successful person in work and life? Multi-intelligence data of the research shows that intelligence language and logic-mathematical intelligence are included in the cognitive domain has a contribution only amounted to 5%. Interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence which affective domain includes a very large contribution is 80%. While kinesthetic intelligence, visual-spatial intelligence and musical intelligence are included in the psychomotor domain contribute 5%

However, in the praxis of education in Indonesia is reflected in the teaching-learning process and rating, a very dominant instead emphasized the cognitive domain. This domain is mainly reflected in four groups of subjects, namely language, mathematics, science, and social sciences. Psychomotor domain is mainly reflected in the subjects of physical education, skills, and tend to be underrated art. Similarly, this happens in the affective domain is particularly reflected in the subjects of religion and nationality.

So that the emphasis in developing this domain third-adjusted proportion of each domain contribute to the success in your work and life, teachers need to understand the meaning and domain of each level and how to apply them in the teaching-learning process and rating.

Paradigm shift in education from the constructivist Behavioristic not only requires a change in the learning process, but also include changes in implementing the student learning assessment. In the old paradigm, more emphasis on the assessment of learning outcomes (product) and tend to only assess cognitive abilities, which are sometimes reduced in such a way through the form of an objective test. Meanwhile, the assessment of affective and psychomotor aspects often ignored.

In constructivism-based learning, learning assessment is not only intended to measure the level of cognitive ability alone, but includes all aspects of student's personality, such as: moral development, emotional development, social development and other aspects of the personality of other individuals. Similarly, the assessment does not only rely on the assessment of products, but also consider the terms of the process.

All this requires a change in approach and techniques assessing student learning. For this reason, the National Education Ministry (2006) launched the signs student learning assessment, with what is called the Appraisal Class.

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